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Table 1 Vaccination strategies

From: Systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses for combinations of prevention strategies against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: a general trend

  Kulasingam 2003 [27] Sanders 2003 [28] Goldie 2004 [29] Taira 2004 [32] Kulasingam 2007 [39]
Vaccine considered Bivalent Bivalent Bivalent Bivalent Bivalent
Age of vaccination (y) 12 (12–19) 12 (12–15) 12 (12–15) 12 12
Catch-up - - - - -
Booster 0 (1) 10y (3y-lifetime) - (Yes) 10y - (1)
Vaccine price (3 doses) $200 ($100–$600) $300 ($100–$500) $377 ($188–$565) $300 ($100–$400) AUS$345 ($300–$450)
Coverage 100% (50–100%) - 100% (50–100%) - 80% (70–90%)
Compliance 100% 70% (30–100%) 100% - -
Efficacy 90% (25–100%) 75% (0–100%) 90% (50–100%) 90% (10–90%) 100% (93–100%)
Protection duration (y) 10 (2–30) 10 - - Lifetime
Waning effect - - No (5,10,15,20y) Yes (No) -
Herd Immunity - - - - Considered in SA
  Goldhaber-Fiebert 2008 [33] Kim 2008 [31] Coupe, de Melker 2009 [35] Coupe, van Ginkel 2009 [36] Kim 2009 [30]
Vaccine considered Bivalent Bi/Quadrivalent Bivalent Bivalent Bi/Quadrivalent
Age of vaccination 9 12 12 12 12
Catch-up In SA 18,21,26y - - -
Booster - 10y - 30y in SA -
Vaccine price (3 doses) $402 ($300–$900) $360 € 375 € 375 $360
Coverage 25%, 75%, and 100% 75% 100% 85% -
Compliance - - 100% - 100%
Efficacy 100% (75%) 100% 95% 95% (85-90-98%) Infection: ♀ 100%/♂ 85% Disease: ♀ 100%/♂ 90%
Protection duration Lifetime (15y) Lifetime Lifetime Lifetime Lifetime
Waning effect - 10 years 10 or 20 years - (exponential decrease in efficacy of 50% during each following 20 years 10y, or 5 years) -
Herd Immunity - (Yes) - - - Yes
  Kim, Ortendahl 2009 [34] Accetta 2010 [38] Diaz 2010 [43] Demarteau 2011 [41] Burger 2012 [42]
Vaccine considered Bivalent Bivalent Bivalent Bivalent Quadrivalent
Age of vaccination 35 11 11 12 12
Catch-up - Yes - up to 25y in SA -
Booster -(Yes) -(10–20y) No - (1) -
Vaccine price (3 doses) $402 ($250–$750) € 309.23 (€90) € 312 (€150–€600) € 401 (€321–€482) $489
Coverage Not clear 100% 90% (50–100%) - -
Compliance 100% - - - -
Efficacy 100% (70%) 75.90% (95%) 100% (60–100%) 98% (78–100%) -
Protection duration Lifetime - Lifetime (10y) - -
Waning effect -(5–10y) - - -(15–20y) -
Herd Immunity - - - - -
  Coupe 2012 [37] Tully 2012 [40] Berkhof 2013 [44]  
Vaccine considered Bivalent & multivalent Bivalent Bivalent
Age of vaccination Not Clear 12 12  
Catch-up - 18y in SA -
Booster - 25y in SA -
Vaccine price (3 doses) - $270 CAD $300
Coverage 100% 80% 70%
Compliance - - -
Efficacy 95% >90% -
Protection duration Lifetime Lifetime -
Waning effect -(Yes) Considered in SA (unavailable) -
Herd Immunity - Accounted -