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Table 3 Psychosocial outcomes at baseline and follow-up for the intervention and control group

From: The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study

   Intervention Control Effect size Unadjusted Adjusted(a)
Outcome Scale Baseline
M (SD)
Follow up
M (SD)
Baseline
M (SD)
Follow up
M (SD)
Cohen’s d(c) Model(b) B SE p B SE p
Fuel poverty
 Putting up with feeling cold to save heating costs 0–1 0.63 (0.48) 0.45 (0.50) 0.57 (0.50) 0.46 (0.50) 0.153 B −0.720 0.324 0.026 −0.717 0.334 0.032
Financial difficulties 1–4 1.93 (0.90) 1.67 (0.73) 1.74 (0.75) 1.65 (0.73) 0.204 L −0.148 0.047 0.002 −0.149 0.050 0.003
Financial stress 1–5 2.96 (1.40) 2.60 (1.35) 2.81 (1.38) 2.58 (1.36) 0.108 O −0.381 0.213 0.074 −0.403 0.220 0.067
Food security 1–4 3.51 (0.77) 3.61 (0.73) 3.55 (0.77) 3.59 (0.73) 0.117 L 0.057 0.035 0.093 0.063 0.036 0.080
Thermal satisfaction 1–5 3.26 (1.28) 4.04 (1.06) 3.60 (1.26) 3.82 (1.20) 0.462 O 1.319 0.216 0.000 1.342 0.219 0.000
Housing conditions
 Satisfaction with state of home repair 1–5 3.45 (1.15) 3.85 (1.10) 3.71 (1.16) 3.63 (1.22) 0.440 O 1.342 0.222 0.000 1.352 0.221 0.000
 Number of housing problems 0–6 1.88 (1.53) 1.20 (1.32) 1.49 (1.53) 1.32 (1.45) −0.386 O −1.065 0.221 0.000 −1.097 0.225 0.000
Social Isolation 0–1 0.24 (0.43) 0.12 (0.33) 0.18 (0.39) 0.14 (0.34) −0.195 B −1.052 0.429 0.014 −1.149 0.456 0.012
  1. Note: (a)adjusted for gender, age, housing benefit, income, and smoking status
  2. (b)L = linear, O = ordinal, B = binomial
  3. (c)Cohen’s d effect sizes: small 0.20, medium 0.50, and large 0.80