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Table 3 Associations between local descriptive overweight/obesity norm, food resource availability, and 10-year change in HbA1c

From: Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Predictors β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Overweight/obesity norm and fast-food outlet availability
 Time (in years – not standardised) 0.0332 (0.0301–0.0363)**** 0.0332 (0.0301–0.0636)**** 0.0332 (0.0301–0.0363)**** 0.0331 (0.0300–0.0362) ****
 Overweight/obesity norm −0.0376 (−0.0575 to −0.0178)*** −0.0382 (−0.0580 - -0.0183)*** −0.0335 (−0.0571 to −0.0100)** −0.0334 (−0.0569 to −0.0098)**
 Overweight/obesity norm*time 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0110)*** 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0111)**** 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0111)**** 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0111)****
 Fast-food outlets - −0.0082 (−0.0281–0.0116) −0.0096 (−0.0298–0.0106) −0.0094 (−0.0296–0.0108)
 Fast-food outlets*time - 0.0002 (−0.0030–0.0034) 0.0002 (−0.0030–0.0034) 0.0003 (−0.0029–0.0035)
 Overweight/obesity norm*fast-food outlets - - - −0.0021 (−0.0228–0.0186)
 Overweight/obesity norm*fast-food outlets*time - - - −0.0021 (−0.0055–0.0014)
 Area-level education (% university degree) - - 0.0090 (−0.0158–0.0337) 0.0089 (−0.0158–0.0336)
 AIC 4286.0 4289.3 4290.8 4293.0
 BIC 4327.5 4336.0 4340.1 4347.5
 Adjusted ICC (participants) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
 Adjusted ICC (State Suburb) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Overweight/obesity norm and healthful food resource availability
 Time (in years – not standardised) 0.0332 (0.0301–0.0363)**** 0.0334 (0.0303–0.0365)*** 0.0334 (0.0303–0.0365)**** 0.0335 (0.0304–0.0366)****
 Overweight/obesity norm −0.0376 (−0.0575 - -0.0178)*** −0.0379 (−0.0558 - -0.0180) *** −0.0347 (−0.0582 to −0.0111)** −0.0344 (−0.0579 to −0.0108)**
 Overweight/obesity norm*time 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0110)*** 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0111)**** 0.0080 (0.0049–0.0111)**** 0.0075 (0.0045–0.0106)****
 Healthful food resources - 0.0114 (−0.0082–0.0310) 0.0112 (−0.0084–0.0308) 0.0121 (−0.0075–0.0317)
 Healthful food resources*time - −0.0024 (−0.0055–0.0007) −0.0024 (−0.0055–0.0007) −0.0027 (−0.0058–0.0005)
 Overweight/obesity norm*healthful food resources - - - 0.0208 (−0.0002–0.0418)
 Overweight/obesity norm*healthful food resources*time - - - −0.0057 (−0.0092 to −0.0022)**
 Area-level education (% university degree) - - 0.0062 (−0.0182–0.0306) 0.0040 (−0.0206–0.0286)
 AIC 4286.0 4287.2 4288.9 4281.6
 BIC 4327.5 4333.9 4338.2 4336.1
 Adjusted ICC (participants) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
 Adjusted ICC (State Suburb) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
  1. All models adjusted for individual covariates: age (at baseline), sex, marital status, education, employment status, and smoking status; standardised (β) coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI); *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001; n = 1890