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Table 4 Past-year gambling participation and harms among males by age in 2011 and 2015 (% ± CI)

From: Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015

  15–17 18–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74
2011
(n = 75)
2015
(n = 82)
2011
(n = 233)
2015
(n = 227)
2011
(n = 252)
2015
(n = 306)
2011
(n = 253)
2015
(n = 368)
2011
(n = 369)
2015
(n = 415)
2011
(n = 512)
2015
(n = 480)
2011
(n = 423)
2015
(n = 427)
Gambling frequency
 No gambling 40.0 ± 11.1 52.3 ± 10.8 18.7 ± 5.0 11.5 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 3.9 11.0 ± 3.5 13.9 ± 4.3 10.2 ± 3.1 14.0 ± 3.5 11.0 ± 3.0 17.5 ± 3.3 15.9 ± 3.3 24.8 ± 4.1 21.4 ± 3.9
 Less than monthly 12.5 ± 7.5 18.6 ± 8.4 16.0 ± 4.7 16.7 ± 4.9 17.8 ± 4.7 20.4 ± 4.5 14.8 ± 4.4 20.2 ± 4.1 15.1 ± 3.7 16.4 ± 3.6 11.6 ± 2.8 12.0 ± 2.9 12.4 ± 3.1 10.6 ± 2.9
 1-3 times/month 11.3 ± 7.2 20.9 ± 8.8 33.5 ± 6.1 39.8 ± 6.4 30.5 ± 5.7 34.7 ± 5.3 26.5 ± 5.5 30.9 ± 4.7 17.8 ± 3.9 27.9 ± 4.3 17.5 ± 3.3 16.6 ± 3.3 12.0 ± 3.1 17.0 ± 3.6
 Once a week 20.0 ± 9.1 7.0 ± 5.5 20.2 ± 5.2 19.3 ± 5.1 26.7 ± 5.5 24.2 ± 4.8 29.7 ± 5.6 29.6 ± 4.7 36.1 ± 4.9 33.5 ± 4.5 38.4 ± 4.2 37.1 ± 4.3 38.0 ± 4.63 34.9 ± 4.5
 Several times a week 16.3 ± 8.4 1.2 ± 2.4 11.7 ± 4.1 12.6 ± 4.3 13.5 ± 4.2 9.7 ± 3.3 15.1 ± 4.4 9.1± 17.0 ± 3.8 11.3 ± 3.1 15.0 ± 3.1 18.4 ± 3.5 12.8 ± 3.2 16.1 ± 3.5
Significance X 2 = 21. 221, df = 4, p ≤ .001, ϕ = .358 X 2 = 6.109, df = 4, p = .191, ϕ = .108 X 2 = 4.396, df = 4, p = .355, ϕ = .078 X 2 = 10.922, df = 4, p = .027, ϕ = .127 X 2 = 14.845, df = 4, p = .005, ϕ = .140 X 2 = 1.996, df = 4, p = .736, ϕ = .049 X 2 = 4.874, df = 4, p = .300, ϕ = .092
 No gambling   .122   .028   .906   .156   .579   .363   .066
 Less than monthly   .292   .906   .395   .070   .691   .915   .505
 1-3 times/month   .098   .148   .234   .204   ≤.001   .783   .121
 Once a week   .021   .827   .442   1.000   .447   .722   .427
 Several times a week   p ≤ .001   .790   .129   .018   .028   .197   .339
Online gambling               
 Yes 12.7 5.9 29.8 33.1 47.1 48.2 36.2 40.7 26.9 32.5 13.6 21.9 8.5 10.8
Significance p = .239, ϕ = − .119 p = .448, ϕ = .035 p = .821, ϕ = .011 p = .235, ϕ = .046 p = .109, ϕ = .061 p = .003, ϕ = .107 p = .385, ϕ = .039
Gambling harmsa
 No gambling 40.0 ± 11.1 52.9 ± 10.8 18.7 ± 5.0 11.5 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 3.9 11.0 ± 3.5 13.8 ± 4.3 10.2 ± 3.1 14.0 ± 3.5 11.0 ± 3.0 17.4 ± 3.3 15.9 ± 3.3 24.8 ± 4.1 21.4 ± 3.9
 No harms 21.0 ± 9.2 30.6 ± 10.0 33.5 ± 6.1 42.2 ± 6.4 54.2 ± 6.2 50.7 ± 5.6 63.0 ± 6.0 60.8 ± 5.0 60.9 ± 5.0 65.4 ± 4.6 61.2 ± 4.2 60.4 ± 2.4 60.3 ± 4.7 63.6 ± 4.6
 One harm 12.5 ± 7.5 4.7 ± 4.6 24.9 ± 5.6 23.8 ± 5.5 15.5 ± 4.5 19.4 ± 4.4 11.9 ± 4.0 15.6 ± 3.7 13.0 ± 3.4 15.1 ± 3.4 14.0 ± 3.0 14.7 ± 3.2 10.2 ± 2.9 7.3 ± 2.5
 ≥2 harms 26.3 ± 10.0 10.6 ± 6.7 23.0 ± 5.4 22.2 ± 5.4 18.9 ± 4.8 18.8 ± 4.4 11.3 ± 3.9 13.3 ± 3.5 11.9 ± 3.3 8.5 ± 2.7 7.6 ± 2.3 8.8 ± 2.5 5.1 ± 2.1 7.3 ± 2.5
Significance X 2 = 11.359, df = 3, p = .010, ϕ = .263 X 2 = 7.317, df = 3, p = .062, ϕ = .118 X 2 = 2.034, df = 3, p = .565, ϕ = .053 X 2 = 4.077, df = 3, p = .253, ϕ = .077 X 2 = 4.780, df = 3, p = .189, ϕ = .079 X 2 = 0.732, df = 3, p = .866, ϕ = .030 X 2 = 3.378, df = 3, p = .337, ϕ = .077
 No gambling   .122   .028   .906   .156   .579   .364   .072
 No harms   .215   .039   .371   .580   .229   .832   .431
 One harm   .095   .839   .171   .183   .406   .844   .227
 ≥2 harms   .014   .917   1.000   .484   .120   .615   .387
  1. Data in 2011 (n = 2117, non-weighted) and 2015 (n = 2305, non-weighted); Significance (p) between time is determined by Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests for weighted data based on gender, age and region of residence; Estimate of effect size (ϕ = phi coefficient/Cramer’s V); aHarms measured using 16 items from the South Oaks Gambling Screen and the Problem Gambling Severity Index; CI, 95% confidence intervals