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Table 2 Percentage of respondents reporting gambling-related harms measured using PGSI and SOGS in 2011 and 2015

From: Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015

   Females Males
Source   2011 2015 p ϕ 2011 2015 p ϕ
SOGS #4 1. Gamble more than you intended to 6.7 10.1 ≤.001 .060 15.2 17.0 .123 .024
PGSI #1 / SOGS #1 2. Go back another day to win back money (chasing) 5.1 5.1 .944 .001 12.0 10.1 .035 −.033
PGSI #9 / SOGS #6 3. Felt guilty 2.8 6.4 ≤.001 .085 7.0 7.4 .637 .007
PGSI #4 4. Need to gamble with larger amounts of money to maintain excitement 1.4 1.5 .898 .003 4.8 4.8 .943 .001
PGSI #7 / SOGS #5 5. People criticized your gambling 1.4 1.2 .496 −.011 3.6 3.3 .616 −.008
PGSI #2 / SOGS #3 6. Feel you have a problem 0.8 1.6 .024 .035 3.4 4.4 .117 .025
PGSI #3 7. Betting more than can afford to lose 1.3 1.7 .315 .016 4.2 4.2 1.000 .000
SOGS #7 8. Felt like you would like to stop gambling but didn’t think you could 1.2 2.4 .004 .044 2.1 2.4 .535 .011
SOGS #2 9. Claimed to be winning money gambling but weren’t really 0.9 0.4 .061 −.030 3.8 1.5 ≤.001 .074
SOGS #9 10. Money arguments centred on gambling 0.8 1.2 .173 .022 1.3 1.5 .975 .005
PGSI #6 11. Gambling causing health problems 0.5 0.4 .667 −.007 1.6 2.0 .427 .014
PGSI #5 / SOGS #12-20 12. Borrowing money or selling something to finance gambling 0.4 0.5 .819 .007 1.0 0.7 .185 −.020
PGSI #8 13. Gambling causing financial problems 0.2 0.4 .588 .010 1.2 1.1 .772 .006
SOGS #11 14. Lost time from work or school 0.4 0.4 1.000 .000 0.8 0.9 1.000 .002
SOGS #8 15. Hidden betting slips 0.2 0.7 .046 .033 0.7 0.8 .604 .009
SOGS #10 16. Borrowed money and not paid them back 0.2 0.5 .221 .020 0.3 0.6 .249 .021
  1. Significance (p) between time is determined by Fisher’s exact tests for weighted data based on gender, age and region of residence; Estimate of effect size (ϕ = phi coefficient); data in 2011 (n = 2367 females and n = 2117 males, non-weighted) and 2015 (n = 2210 females and n = 2305 males, non-weighted); SOGS the South Oaks Gambling Screen, PGSI the Problem Gambling Severity Index