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Table 1 Female and male attitudes towards gambling by age in 2011 and 2015

From: Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015

  Females Males
2011
Mean (95% CI)
2015
Mean (95% CI)
F(df)
[p; η 2]
2011
Mean (95% CI)
2015
Mean (95% CI)
F(df)
[p; η 2]
All 21.44
(21.18–21.69)
22.93
(22.71–23.16)
73.99(1, 3978)
[.001; .018]
23.97
(23.72–24.23)
25.22
(24.99–25.45)
50.81(1, 4029)
[.001; .012]
Age
 15–17 years 20.87 (19.66–22.08) 21.32 (20.32–22.33) 0.33(1, 164)
[.564; .000]
23.53 (22.07–24.98) 23.32 (22.14–24.50) 0.05(1, 154)
[.824; .000]
 18–24 years 21.74 (21.06–22.43) 22.55 (21.95–23.16) 3.07(1, 458)
[.081; .007]
24.30 (23.64–24.95) 25.86 (25.23–26.49) 11.47(1, 514)
[.001; .021]
 25–34 years 22.67 (22.07–23.27) 24.28 (23.74–24.82) 15.54 (1, 664)
[≤.001; .023]
25.38 (24.79–25.97) 26.40 (25.86–26.93) 6.25(1, 674)
[.013; .009]
 35–44 years 21.38 (20.75–22.01) 23.53 (22.92–24.15) 22.57 (1, 631)
[≤.001; .035]
24.52 (23.91–25.13) 25.82 (25.27–26.36) 9.68(1, 652)
[.002; .014]
 45–54 years 21.85 (21.24–22.47) 23.30 (22.73–23.87) 11.42 (1, 678)
[.001; .017]
24.38 (23.82–24.94) 25.21 (24.65–25.77) 4.13(1, 718)
[.042; .006]
 55–64 years 20.70 (20.13–21.28) 22.41 (21.90–22.93) 19.02 (1, 789)
[≤.001; .024]
22.56 (21.98–23.15) 24.77 (24.22–25.32) 28.83 (1, 773)
[≤.001; .035]
 65–74 years 20.05 (19.32–20.78) 22.02 (21.48–22.55) 17.94 (1, 578)
[≤.001; .030]
22.44 (21.67–23.21) 23.85 (23.26–24.44) 8.06(1, 530)
[.005; .015]
  1. A one-way between-subject ANOVA (F-test) design for weighted data based on gender, age and region of residence; data in 2011 (n = 2367 females and n = 2117 males, non-weighted) and 2015 (n = 2210 females and n = 2305 males, non-weighted); 95% CI, 95% confidence intervals. Estimate of effect size (η 2 = eta-squared); The sum of 8 Attitudes Towards Gambling (ATGS-8) items (a Likert scale: 1 = “strongly agree”, 2 = “agree”, 3 = “neither agree or disagree”, 4 = “disagree” and 5 = “strongly disagree”, 4 reversed items) forms a total ATGS-8 score (range 8–40) < where a score of 24 represents the overall neutral attitude towards gambling, while scores above 24 indicate favourable and those below 24 unfavourable attitudes