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Table 4 Peru: Modified Poisson regression models for stunting [HAZ < −2] and thinness [BMI < −2] on improved water and sanitation facilities, relative risk ratios and confidence intervals

From: Children with access to improved sanitation but not improved water are at lower risk of stunting compared to children without access: a cohort study in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam

  Unadjusted Unadjusted Child Adjusted Child and Household Adjusted Child, Household, and Parent Adjusted Child, Household, Parent, and Community Adjusted
n = 1,999 I II III IV V VI
Stunting at age ~1y
 Improved water at age ~1y 0.74**   0.88 1.1 1.08 1.06
[0.63–0.87]   [0.74–1.04] [0.94–1.29] [0.93–1.26] [0.90–1.24]
 Improved toilets at age ~1y   0.62** 0.65** 0.88 0.91 0.93
  [0.53–0.72] [0.56–0.76] [0.76–1.02] [0.79–1.06] [0.80–1.07]
Stunting at age ~5y
 Improved water at age ~1y 0.80**   0.95 1.09 1.08 1.08
[0.69–0.93]   [0.82–1.11] [0.94–1.26] [0.94–1.24] [0.94–1.24]
 Improved water at age ~5y 0.63**   0.74** 0.93 0.94 0.93
[0.53–0.74]   [0.63–0.87] [0.80–1.08] [0.81–1.09] [0.81–1.07]
 Improved toilets at age ~1y   0.62** 0.71** 0.84* 0.90* 0.93
  [0.54–0.72] [0.61–0.82] [0.73–0.96] [0.79–1.02] [0.81–1.05]
 Improved toilets at age ~5y   0.71** 0.77** 0.92 0.91 0.9
  [0.61–0.83] [0.66–0.90] [0.79–1.06] [0.79–1.05] [0.78–1.04]
Stunting at age ~8y
 Improved water at age ~1y 0.77*   0.91 1.03 1.06 1.08
[0.62–0.96]   [0.72–1.15] [0.83–1.29] [0.86–1.30] [0.87–1.33]
 Improved water at age ~5y 0.77   0.85 1.02 1.07 1.09
[0.59–1.01]   [0.65–1.12] [0.79–1.32] [0.84–1.37] [0.85–1.40]
 Improved water at age ~8y 0.65**   0.71* 1 0.88 0.87
[0.49–0.86]   [0.53–0.94] [0.76–1.32] [0.68–1.16] [0.66–1.14]
 Improved toilets at age ~1y   0.63** 0.66** 0.84 0.91 0.93
  [0.51–0.77] [0.52–0.82] [0.68–1.03] [0.75–1.12] [0.76–1.15]
 Improved toilets at age ~5y   0.68** 0.72** 0.89 0.9 0.88
  [0.54–0.86] [0.57–0.92] [0.72–1.11] [0.72–1.12] [0.71–1.09]
 Improved toilets at age ~8y   0.83 0.91 0.93 0.89 0.88
  [0.64–1.09] [0.70–1.19] [0.71–1.21] [0.69–1.14] [0.69–1.13]
Thinness at age ~1y
 Improved water at age ~1y 0.67   0.75 0.92 0.93 0.88
[0.33–1.37]   [0.33–1.68] [0.42–2.02] [0.42–2.05] [0.39–1.99]
 Improved toilets at age ~1y   0.62 0.75 0.92 0.93 0.88
  [0.32–1.23] [0.33–1.68] [0.42–2.02] [0.42–2.05] [0.39–1.99]
Thinness at age ~5y
 Improved water at age ~1y 1.82   1.81 1.88 1.94 1.83
[0.15–21.96]   [0.11–29.12] [0.12–29.55] [0.12–32.45] [0.12–28.60]
 Improved water at age ~5y 0.74   0.55 0.66 0.71 0.7
[0.06–8.85]   [0.02–12.29] [0.03–13.81] [0.03–14.89] [0.04–13.53]
 Improved toilets at age ~1y   1.14 0.97 1.08 1.02 0.91
  [0.10–12.64] [0.11–8.29] [0.13–9.26] [0.12–8.55] [0.13–6.14]
 Improved toilets at age ~5y   494.61 681.99 881.43 854.18 1,079.33
  [0.00–6.15e + 09] [0.00–1.19e + 10] [0.00–2.49e + 10] [0.00–1.81e + 10] [0.00–3.54e + 10]
Thinness at age ~8y
 Improved water at age ~1y 0.87   1.02 1.05 0.99 0.99
[0.26–2.93]   [0.26–3.99] [0.27–4.08] [0.25–3.92] [0.18–5.43]
 Improved water at age ~5y 0.58   0.6 0.61 0.59 0.56
[0.16–2.07]   [0.18–1.98] [0.18–2.10] [0.18–1.95] [0.13–2.53]
 Improved water at age ~8y 1.82   1.8 1.91 2.02 2.09
[0.24–13.87]   [0.23–14.22] [0.24–15.41] [0.24–17.04] [0.15–28.56]
 Improved toilets at age ~1y   0.67 0.67 0.69 0.63 0.52
  [0.22–2.06] [0.19–2.37] [0.18–2.64] [0.16–2.55] [0.09–2.94]
 Improved toilets at age ~5y   0.78 0.86 0.89 0.89 0.86
  [0.21–2.88] [0.25–2.94] [0.26–3.00] [0.26–3.12] [0.19–3.94]
 Improved toilets at age ~8y   1.45 1.31 1.32 1.38 1.56
  [0.22–9.72] [0.19–8.95] [0.20–8.94] [0.21–9.29] [0.15–16.12]
  1. *p < 0 · 05, **p < 0 · 01. All adjusted models include both improved water and improved toilets. Child variables include age in months at outcome and child sex. Household variables are asset index, household size, and household moved between rounds when there is more than one round of data on household toilet and water. Parental variables are age of mother, height of mother, years of schooling of mother, and years of schooling of father. Community variables are urban residence, community population, community wealth, presence of a community hospital, and community has public secondary school