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Table 6 Results of silica-smoking and diesel-smoking interaction studies included in the systematic review

From: Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

Author (Year) Subjects (cases) Cases (controls) Perioda NS/Exposed S/Exposed Interaction Estimation Interpretation
Additive Multiplicative Additive Multiplicative
Silica-smoking interaction studies
Liu (2013) [36] 34018 546 1960–2003 HR = 1.10 (0.68-1.78) HR = 3.83 (2.48-5.90) RERI = 0.98
(0.23-1.74)
IT
P = 0.25
No No
Fu (1994) [37] M: 79 M: 188 1973–1989 NA NA NA IT
P = 0.57
NA No
Cassidy (2007) [38] M: 2197
F: 655
M: 2295
F: 809
1998–2002 OR = 1.41 (0.79 -2.49) OR = 1.41 (1.07-1.87) NA Test for Heterogeneity P = 0.37 NA No
De Matteis (2012) [6] M: 1537 M: 1617 2002–2005 OR = 1.41 (0.51-3.91) OR = 44.98 (27.15-74.52) NA LRT
P = 0.94
NA No
Kachuri (2014) [39] M: 1681 M: 2053 1994–1997 OR = 0.63 (0.26-1.52) OR = 42.53 (23.54-76.83) S = 2.38
(1.35-4.21)
V = 3.59
(1.51-8.49)
Positive Positive
Consonni (2015) [40] M: 15608 M: 18531 1985–2010 OR = 1.18 OR = 18.5 RERI = 6.80
(4.36-9.62)
IT
P = 0.28
Positive No
Lacourt (2015) [34] M: 241 M: 196 St.1: 1979–1986 St.2: 1996–1998 OR = 3.1 (1.0–9.6) OR = 1.4 (0.7–2.7) NA IT
P = 0.02
NA Negative
Diesel-smoking interaction studies
Silverman (2012) [41] M: 198 M: 562 Ma 1947–1977 OR = 7.30 (1.46- 36.57) OR = 17.38 (3.48-86.73) NA IT
P = 0.086
NA No
Pintos (2012) [42] St. I: M: 857 St. II: M: 736 St. I: M: 533 St. II: M: 894 St. I: 1979–1986
St. II: 1996–2001
OR = 2.29 (1.1-4.6) OR = 9.84 (6.4-15.1) NA IT
OR = 1.15 (0.5-2.7)
NA No
  1. M Males, F Females, S Smokers, NS Non-Smokers, NA Not Applicable, S Synergy Index, V Multiplicativity Index, RERI Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction, LRT likelihood ratio test, IT interaction term
  2. a: Follow-up or recruitment period