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Table 4 Results of case–control studies included in the systematic review for the asbestos-smoking interaction

From: Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

Author (Year) Cases Controls Recruitment period NS /Exposed S/Exposed Interaction Estimation Interpretation
Additive Multiplicative Additive Multiplicative
Martischnig (1977) [29] M: 201 M: 201 1972–1973 RR = 1.08 ≥25 C/D:
RR = 3.26
NA No heterogeneity of RRs X2 = 2.89; DF =2 NA No
Blot (1978) [30] M: 458 M: 553 1970–1976 RR = 1.3 RR = 1.7
RR = 2.4
NA No heterogeneity of RRs P > 0.10 NA No
Jöckel (1998) [31] M: 839
F: 165
M: 839
F: 165
1988-1993 OR = 1.1 OR = 6.5
OR = 18
NA IT
P = 0.73
NA No
Gustavsson (2002) [35] M: 1038 M: 2359 1985–1990 RR = 4.2 (1.6-11.1) RR = 28.6 (19.9-48.3) S = 1.15 (0.77-1.72) IT
OR = 0.31 (0.11-0.86)
No Negative
Carel (2007) [32] M: 2205 M: 2305 1998–2002 Not shown Not shown NA No modification effect CEE: P = 0.37 UK P = 0.62. NA No
De Matteis (2012) [6] M: 1537 M: 1617 2002–2005 OR = 2.47 (1.15-5.31) OR = 49.54 (28.18-87.08) NA LRT
P = 0.19
NA No
Villeneuve (2012) [33] M: 1681 M: 2053 1994–1997 OR = 2.20 (0.42-11.41) OR = 38.59 (10.78-138.08) NA IT
P = 0.77
NA No
Lacourt (2015) [34] M: 414 M: 321 St.1: 1979–1986 St.2: 1996–1998 OR = 1.2 (0.7–2.2) OR = 1.1 (0.8–1.6) NA IT
P = 0.68
NA No
  1. M Males, F Females, S Smokers, NS Non-Smokers, CEE Central and Eastern Europe, St Study, S Synergy Index, LRT likelihood ratio test, IT interaction term