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Table 5 Short- and long-term intervention effects on psychological need satisfaction

From: Short- and long-term effectiveness of a three-month individualized need-supportive physical activity counseling intervention at the workplace

  Intervention group Reference group Short-term
intervention effect
Long-term
intervention effect
  Baseline Post
(3 months)
Follow-up
(9 months)
Baseline Post
(3 months)
Follow-up
(9 months)
Main effect
of time
2x2 interactiona ES Main effect
of time
3x2 interactionb ES
  Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) F F d F F d
Need satisfaction (1–5)
 Autonomy 3.05 (0.05) 3.51 (0.05) 3.43 (0.06) 3.17 (0.11) 3.32 (0.10) 3.30 (0.12) 21.517*** 5.331* 0.35 10.860*** 3.002 0.26
 Competence 2.80 (0.05) 3.17 (0.05) 2.96 (0.07) 2.77 (0.10) 2.77 (0.11) 2.72 (0.13) 6.820** 6.803* 0.40 3.889* 3.894* 0.30
 Relatedness 3.03 (0.07) 3.14 (0.07) 2.92 (0.09) 3.05 (0.15) 3.06 (0.14) 2.92 (0.18) 0.538 0.332 0.09 1.806 0.227 0.07
 Total needsc 2.96 (0.04) 3.27 (0.04) 3.11 (0.05) 3.00 (0.09) 3.05 (0.09) 3.00 (0.11) 10.260** 5.085* 0.34 5.664** 3.060* 0.27
  1. SE Standard error, ES Effect size
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
  3. a2(time) x 2(group) interaction effect; b3(time) x 2(group) interaction effect; ccomposite variable of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction