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Table 2 Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemias, elevated cardio/cerebro-vascular disease risk and proteinuria among patients at a rural and an urban HIV clinic in Zomba District, Malawi

From: The burden of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk factors among adult Malawians in HIV care: consequences for integrated services

Outcomes Overall Rural Urban p-value
n/N (%) 95% CI n/N (%) 95% CI n/N (%) 95% CI
Hypertension 226/952 (23.7%) 21.1–26.6 99/472 (21.0) 17.5–24.9 127/480 (26.5) 22.7–30.6 0.047
Diabetes mellitus 39/952 (4.1%) 3.0–5.6 16/472 (3.4) 2.1–5.5 23/480 (4.8) 3.2–7.1 0.275
Hypertension + diabetes mellitus 11/952 (1.2%) 0.6–2.1 3/472 (0.6) 0.2–1.9 8/480 (1.7) 0.8–3.3 0.137
Raised total cholesterol 86/554 (15.5%) 12.7–18.8 44/277 (15.9) 10.0–20.7 42/277 (15.2) 11.4–90.9 0.814
Decreased HDL cholesterol 88/554 (15.9%) 13.1–19.2 46/277 (16.6) 12.7–21.5 42/277 (15.2) 11.4–19.9 0.642
Raised total/HDL cholesterol ratio 21/554 (3.8%) 2.5–5.6 11/277 (4.0) 2.2–7.1 10/277 (3.6) 1.9–6.6 0.842
Hypertriglyceridemia 159/554 (28.7%) 25.1–32.6 87/277 (31.4) 26.2–37.1 72/277 (26.0) 21.1–31.5 0.159
Framingham score, risk >20%a 13/551 (2.4%) 1.4–4.0 8/277 (2.9) 1.4–5.7 5/274 (1.8) 0.8–4.3 0.411
WHO/ISH score, risk >20%a 13/379 (3.4%) 2.0–5.8 6/180 (3.3) 1.5–7.3 7/199 (3.5) 1.8–7.2 0.922
Proteinuriab 20/948 (2.1%) 1.4–3.2 2/472 (0.4%) 0.1–1.7 18/476 (3.8%) 2.4–6.0 0.001
  1. n numerator, d denominator, HDL high-density lipoprotein, WHO World Health Organization, ISH International Society for Hypertension
  2. aIndicating the risk of experiencing a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke in the next 10 years
  3. bGrade 1+ and 2+ proteinuria as determined by dipstick urine testing