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Table 2 GEE analysis examining differences in health warning label impact on smokeless tobacco user’s salience, perceptions, behaviour and intensions to quit smokeless between pre- and post-policy periods (Waves 1 and 2)

From: An examination of the effectiveness of health warning labels on smokeless tobacco products in four states in India: findings from the TCP India cohort survey

  Wave Wave  
  1 2 Difference between Waves
Outcome % (95% CI) % (95% CI) Diff SE Diff Test p value
All respondents (N = 4634)
 Aware that SLT packages contain HWLs (yes) 72.7 67.1 77.7 73.0 67.3 78.1 0.3 2.9 0.1 0.92
 Noticed HWLs at least once in a while (yes) 34.3 28.5 40.6 28.1 21.8 35.4 −6.2 4.0 −1.5 0.13
Among respondents that noticed HWLs (n = 2154)           
 Read HWLs at least once in a while (yes) 49.4 42.0 56.9 50.1 40.4 59.9 0.7 6.4 0.1 0.92
 HWLs made you think about risks of SLT at least a little (yes) 15.0 11.9 18.8 17.5 12.1 24.6 2.5 3.1 0.8 0.42
 HWLs made you think about quitting SLT at least a little (yes) 16.8 13.0 21.4 19.3 13.6 26.6 2.5 3.1 0.8 0.422
 Avoided looking at HWLs (yes) 8.1 5.5 11.8 11.6 7.8 17.0 3.6 2.0 1.7 0.09
 Gave up SLT at least once because of HWLs (yes) 31.3 24.3 39.3 36.7 27.2 47.5 5.4 4.9 1.1 0.27
 Any intentions to quit SLT (yes) 19.8 14.6 26.4 20.5 15.2 27.0 0.6 4.5 0.1 0.89
  1. All estimates are weighted; CI Confidence interval, SLT Smokeless tobacco, HWL Health warning label, SE Standard error, p probability (based on P < 0.05); The data were adjusted with the following covariates: State, sex, urban/rural, age, marital status, income, education, quit attempt in last year, intentions to quit, wave and SLT dependence