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Table 1 Respondent’s baseline demographic characteristics and smokeless tobacco use behaviours

From: An examination of the effectiveness of health warning labels on smokeless tobacco products in four states in India: findings from the TCP India cohort survey

Characteristic, n (%) Maharashtra Bihar Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Total Sample* P-Value
n = 1101 (23.3%) n = 1551 (32.8%) n = 1168 (24.7%) n = 931 (19.3%) N = 4733  
Sex, n (%)
 Male 514 (46.7) 887 (57.2) 839 (71.8) 426 (46.7) 2666 (56.3) <0.001
 Female 587 (53.3) 664 (42.8) 329 (28.2) 487 (53.3) 2067 (43.7)
Age, n (%)
 15–17 4 (0.4) 98 (6.3) 22 (1.9) 9 (1.0) 133 (2.8) <0.001
 18–24 46 (4.2) 258 (16.6) 140 (12.0) 87 (9.5) 531 (11.2)
 25–39 351 (31.9) 536 (34.6) 379 (32.4) 281 (30.8) 1547 (32.7)
 40–54 382 (34.7) 388 (25.0) 335 (28.7) 305 (33.4) 1410 (29.8)
 55+ 318 (28.9) 271 (17.5) 292 (25.0) 231 (25.3) 1112 (23.5)
Marital status, n (%)
 Married 831 (75.5) 1111 (71.6) 832 (71.5) 663 (72.9) 3437 (72.7) <0.001
 Single 74 (6.7) 344 (22.2) 179 (15.4) 103 (11.3) 558 (12.4)
 Other 196 (17.8) 96 (6.2) 152 (13.1) 144 (15.8) 700 (14.8)
Education level, n (%)
 Low 665 (60.5) 845 (54.5) 739 (63.3) 718 (79.0) 2967 (62.8) <0.001
 Moderate 408 (37.1) 446 (28.8) 336 (28.8) 140 (15.4) 1330 (28.1)
 High 27 (2.5) 260 (16.8) 92 (7.9) 51 (5.6) 430 (9.1)
Income level, n (%)
 Low 112 (10.2) 454 (29.3) 348 (29.8) 420 (46.0) 1334 (28.2) <.001
 Moderate 777 (70.6) 834 (53.8) 687 (58.8) 381 (41.7) 2679 (56.6)
 High 172 (15.6) 236 (15.2) 89 (7.6) 92 (10.1) 589 (12.4)
 Not stated 40 (3.6) 27 (1.7) 44 (3.8) 20 (2.2) 131 (2.8)
District type, n (%)
 Urban 743 (67.5) 1127 (72.7) 892 (76.4) 691 (75.7) 3453 (73.0) 0.75
 Rural 358 (32.5) 424 (27.3) 276 (23.6) 222 (24.3) 1280 (27.0)
Number of SLT products used, n (%)
 1 839 (76.2) 1224 (78.9) 773 (66.2) 673 (73.7) 3509 (74.2) 0.039
 2 210 (19.1) 254 (16.4) 302 (25.9) 193 (21.1) 959 (20.3)
 3 52 (4.7) 73 (4.7) 92 (7.9) 47 (5.1) 264 (5.6)
Use frequency, n (%)
 Less than daily 7 (0.6) 59 (3.8) 7 (0.6) 20 (2.2) 93 (2.0) <0.001
 Almost daily 103 (9.4) 565 (36.4) 200 (17.1) 146 (16.0) 1014 (21.4)
 More than once/day 991 (90.0) 927 (59.8) 960 (82.3) 745 (81.8) 3623 (76.6)
SLT quit attempt (ever), n (%)
 Yes 302 (27.5) 395 (25.6) 304 (26.2) 176 (19.3) 1177 (25.0) 0.49
 No 798 (72.5) 114 (74.4) 858 (73.8) 734 (80.7) 3538 (75.0)
Daily SLT consumption (number of times per day)
  ≤ 10 1407 (91.5) 731 (81.0) 915 (79.4) 1008 (91.7) 4061 (86.6) <0.001
 11–20 116 (7.5) 138 (15.3) 205 (17.8) 74 (6.7) 533 (11.4)  
 21–30 10 (0.7) 24 (2.7) 20 (1.7) 12 (1.1) 66 (1.4)  
 31+ 4 (0.3) 9 (1.0) 13 (1.1) 5 (0.5) 31 (0.7)  
Time to first use after waking (min)
  > 60 573 (37.1) 338 (37.4) 125 (10.7) 291 (26.5) 1327 (28.1) < 0.001
 31–60 344 (22.3) 121 (13.4) 291 (24.9) 88 (8.0) 844 (17.9)  
 6–30 416 (26.9) 252 (27.9) 572 (49.0) 353 (32.1) 1593 (33.8)  
  ≤ 5 211 (13.7) 193 (21.3) 180 (15.4) 367 (33.4) 951 (20.2)  
SLT quit attempt (in the last year, n (%)
 Yes 116 (10.5) 296 (19.2) 285 (24.6) 117 (12.9) 814 (17.3)  
 No 984 (89.5) 1243 (80.8) 875 (75.4) 790 (87.1) 3892 (82.7) 0.003
  1. Some characteristics have missing values if they were not reported at time of entry into the study (percentages take into account missing data). Results are unweighted but the survey design was accounted for in the analysis. All tests are the Rao–Scott χ2 test unless otherwise indicated