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Table 4 Factors associated with mortality among children with clinical pneumonia: results of univariable and multivariable analysis

From: Epidemiology and risk factors for pneumonia severity and mortality in Bangladeshi children <5 years of age before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

  Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) Adjusted OR 95% CI
Age
 2–5 months 3.63 1.87–7.05 3.52 1.51-8.18
 6–11 months 2.10 1.00–4.41 2.58 1.04-6.41
 12–59 months ref -- ref --
Low weight for age 6.30 3.59–11.04 4.77 2.48–9.16
Number of family members in household
 2–4 ref -- ref --
  ≥ 5 1.28 0.75–2.16 -- --
Unsafe watera 2.49 1.29–4.83 2.17 1.02–4.62
Non-hygienic latrine 1.59 0.96–2.62 -- --
Father’s educationb
 None ref -- ref --
 Some primary 0.65 0.22–1.98 -- --
 Some secondary 0.52 0.28–0.97 -- --
 Some higher than secondary 0.23 0.11–0.49 0.49 0.24–0.97
Mother’s educationb
 None ref -- ref --
 Some primary 1.27 0.48–3.36 -- --
 Some secondary 0.55 0.26–1.15 -- --
 Higher than secondary 0.25 0.09–0.60 -- --
Severityc
 Mild pneumonia ref -- ref --
 Severe pneumonia 3.02 1.57–5.81 2.35 1.12–4.92
Number of co-morbid conditionsd
 0 ref -- ref --
 1+ 6.61 3.72–11.75 3.19 1.68–6.05
Pentavalent vaccination status up-to-date for agee
 None ref -- ref --
 Partially vaccinated 0.58 0.26–1.30 -- --
 Fully vaccinated 0.23 0.11–0.51 -- --
  1. aSafe water sources include piped water (boiled) and tube well or deep rube well. Unsafe water sources include piped water (not boiled), surface water (e.g., pond, tank, lake, river, streams), and other sources not specified
  2. bEducation categories were defined as the following: some primary (1–4 years), some secondary (5–9 years), some higher than secondary (10 years or more)
  3. cSeverity definitions: 1) Pneumonia: history of coughing or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without any of the following signs, including inability to drink or breastfeed, vomiting with a final discharge diagnosis code for pneumonia or severe pneumonia, convulsions, prostration/lethargy, chest indrawing, or stridor in a calm child); 2) Severe pneumonia: history of coughing or difficulty breathing and ≥1 of the aforementioned signs. Because the sign, “vomiting everything” was not specifically captured in the abstraction form, we included children with a history of vomiting who also had a final hospitalization diagnosis of pneumonia or severe pneumonia to improve specificity for this sign
  4. dCo-morbid conditions: congenital heart disease, thalassemia, nephrotic syndrome, Down’s syndrome, protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and tuberculosis
  5. eVaccination status for pentavalent vaccines was collected from parents by verbal report. To be included, the child had to be age-eligible for the vaccine