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Table 3 Demographic and clinical characteristics of children with clinical pneumonia, by outcome (N = 3,632)

From: Epidemiology and risk factors for pneumonia severity and mortality in Bangladeshi children <5 years of age before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

Characteristic Total
N = 3632
n (%)
Died
N = 63
n (%)
Survived
N = 3569
n (%)
P-value
Female gender 1289 (35.5) 29 (46.0) 1260 (35.3) 0.08
Age <0.001
 2–5 months 1168 (32.2) 34 (54.0) 1134 (31.8)
 6–11 months 998 (27.5) 17 (27.0) 981 (27.5)
 12–59 months 1466 (40.4) 12 (19.0) 1454 (40.7)
Weight for age <0.001
 Normal weight for age 2511 (69.1) 17 (27.0) 2494 (69.9)
 Low weight for age 1117 (30.8) 46 (73.0) 1071 (30.0)
 Unknown 4 (0.1) 0 (0) 4 (0.1)
Number of family members in household <0.001
 2–4 1578 (43.4) 23 (36.5) 1555 (43.6)
  ≥ 5 2046 (56.3) 38 (60.3) 2008 (56.3)
 Unknown 8 (0.2) 2 (3.2) 6 (0.2)
Drinking sourcea <0.001
 Safe water 3334 (91.8) 51 (81.0) 3283 (92.0)
 Unsafe water 295 (8.1) 11 (17.5) 284 (8.0)
 Unknown 3 (0.1) 1 (1.6) 2 (0.1)
Latrine typeb <0.001
 Hygienic 2107 (58.0) 29 (46.0) 2078 (58.2)
 Not hygienic 1522 (41.9) 33 (52.4) 1489 (41.7)
 Unknown 3 (0.1) 1 (1.6) 2 (0.1)
Father’s educationc <0.001
 None 450 (12.4) 16 (25.4) 434 (12.2)
 Some primary 170 (4.7) 4 (6.3) 166 (4.7)
 Some secondary 1605 (44.2) 30 (47.6) 1575 (44.1)
 Higher than secondary 1401 (38.6) 12 (19.0) 1389 (38.9)
 Unknown 6 (0.2) 1 (1.6) 5 (0.1)
Mother’s educationc <0.001
 None 300 (8.3) 9 (14.3) 291 (8.2)
 Some primary 211 (5.8) 8 (12.7) 203 (5.7)
 Some secondary 2199 (60.5) 37 (58.7) 2162 (60.6)
 Higher than secondary 916 (25.2) 7 (11.1) 909 (25.5)
 Unknown 6 (0.2) 2 (3.2) 4 (0.1)
Supplemental oxygen use during hospitalization 2180 (60.0) 60 (95.2) 2120 (59.4) <0.001
Severityd <0.001
 Mild pneumonia 1403 (38.6) 11 (17.5) 1392 (39.0)
 Severe pneumonia 2229 (61.4) 52 (82.5) 2177 (61.0)
Number of co-morbid conditionse <0.001
 0 3426 (94.3) 46 (73.0) 3380 (94.7)
 1+ 206 (5.7) 17 (27.0) 189 (5.3)
Pentavalent vaccination status up-to-date for agef (N = 3,429; 58 dead, 3371 alive) 0.001
 None 198 (5.5) 9 (15.5) 189 (5.6)
 Partially vaccinated 740 (20.6) 20 (34.5) 720 (21.4)
 Fully vaccinated 2448 (68.3) 27 (46.6) 2,421 (71.8)
 Unknown 43 (1.2) 2 (3.6) 41 (1.2)
  1. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding
  2. aSafe water sources include piped water (boiled) and tube well or deep rube well. Unsafe water sources include piped water (not boiled), surface water (e.g., pond, tank, lake, river, streams), and other sources not specified
  3. bHygienic latrines include septic tank/modern toilet and pit latrine (water sealed). Unhygienic latrines include pit latrine (not sealed), open or hanging latrine, and bush or field
  4. cEducation categories were defined as the following: some primary (1–4 years), some secondary (5–9 years), some higher than secondary (10 years or more)
  5. dSeverity definitions: 1) Pneumonia: history of coughing or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without any of the following signs, including inability to drink or breastfeed, vomiting with a final discharge diagnosis code for pneumonia or severe pneumonia, convulsions, prostration/lethargy, chest indrawing, or stridor in a calm child); 2) Severe pneumonia: history of coughing or difficulty breathing and ≥1 of the aforementioned signs. Because the sign, “vomiting everything” was not specifically captured in the abstraction form, we included children with a history of vomiting who also had a final hospitalization diagnosis of pneumonia or severe pneumonia to improve specificity for this sign
  6. eCo-morbid conditions: congenital heart disease, thalassemia, nephrotic syndrome, Down’s syndrome, protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and tuberculosis
  7. fVaccination status for pentavalent vaccines was collected from parents by verbal report. To be included, the child had to be age-eligible for the vaccine