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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of children with clinical pneumonia, by severity

From: Epidemiology and risk factors for pneumonia severity and mortality in Bangladeshi children <5 years of age before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

Characteristic Total
N = 3639
Pneumoniaa
N = 1409
n (%)
Severe pneumoniaa
N = 2230
n (%)
P-value for comparison of pneumonia vs. severe pneumonia
Female gender 1291 (35.5) 475 (33.7) 816 (36.6) 0.08
Age <0.001
 2–5 months 1169 (32.1) 348 (24.7) 821 (36.8)
 6–11 months 999 (27.5) 401 (28.5) 598 (26.8)
 12–59 months 1471 (40.4) 660 (46.8) 811 (36.4)
Weight for age 0.02
 Normal weight for age 2515 (69.1) 1005 (71.3) 1510 (67.7)
 Low weight for age 1120 (30.8) 402 (28.5) 718 (32.2)
 Unknown 4 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1)
Number of family members in household 0.39
 2–4 1580 (43.4) 596 (42.3) 984 (44.1)
  ≥ 5 2051 (56.4) 811 (57.6) 1240 (55.6)
 Unknown 8 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 6 (0.3)
Drinking sourceb <0.001
 Safe water 3340 (91.8) 1333 (94.6) 2007 (90.0)
 Unsafe water 296 (8.1) 76 (5.4) 220 (9.9)
 Unknown 3 (0.1) 0 (0) 3 (0.1)
Latrine typec 0.03
 Hygienic 2111 (58.0) 785 (55.7) 1326 (59.5)
 Unhygienic 1525 (41.9) 624 (44.3) 901 (40.4)
 Unknown 3 (0.1) 0 (0) 3 (0.1)
Father’s educationd 0.001
 None 450 (12.4) 173 (12.3) 277 (12.4)
 Some primary 171 (4.7) 80 (5.7) 91 (4.1)
 Some secondary 1611 (44.3) 666 (47.3) 945 (42.4)
 Higher than secondary 1401 (38.5) 489 (34.7) 912 (40.9)
 Unknown 6 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 5 (0.2)
Mother’s educationd <0.001
 None 300 (8.2) 105 (7.5) 195 (8.7)
 Some primary 211 (5.8) 84 (6.0) 127 (5.7)
 Some secondary 2206 (60.6) 918 (65.2) 1288 (57.8)
 Higher than secondary 916 (25.2) 300 (21.3) 616 (27.6)
 Unknown 6 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 4 (0.2)
Supplemental oxygen use during hospitalization 2184 (60.0) 753 (53.4) 1431 (64.1) <0.001
Blood specimens collected prior to antibiotic administration 1254 (34.5) 444 (31.5) 810 (36.3) 0.003
Number of co-morbid conditionse
 0 3433 (94.3) 1349 (95.7) 2084 (93.5) 0.004
 1+ 206 (5.7) 60 (4.3) 146 (6.5)
Pentavalent vaccination status per parent report (N = 3,433; 1331 pneumonia, 2102 severe pneumonia) f <0.001
 None 198 (5.8) 51 (3.8) 147 (7.0)
 Partially vaccinated for age 741 (21.6) 209 (15.7) 532 (25.1)
 Fully vaccinated for age 2451 (71.4) 1056 (79.3) 1395 (66.4)
 Unknown 43 (1.3) 15 (1.1) 28 (1.3)
Outcome <0.001
 Discharged 3401 (93.5) 1342 (95.2) 2059 (92.3)
 Referred 41 (1.1) 11 (0.8) 30 (1.3)
 Left against medical advice 127 (3.5) 39 (2.8) 88 (3.9)
 Died 63 (1.7) 11 (0.8) 52 (2.3)
 Unknown 7 (0.2) 6 (0.4) 1 (0)
  1. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding
  2. aCase definitions: 1) Pneumonia: history of coughing or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without any of the following signs, including inability to drink or breastfeed, vomiting with a final discharge diagnosis code for pneumonia or severe pneumonia, convulsions, prostration/lethargy, chest indrawing, or stridor in a calm child); 2) Severe pneumonia: history of coughing or difficulty breathing and ≥1 of the aforementioned signs. Because the sign, “vomiting everything” was not specifically captured in the abstraction form, we included children with a history of vomiting who also had a final hospitalization diagnosis of pneumonia or severe pneumonia to improve specificity for this sign
  3. bSafe water sources include piped water (boiled) and tube well or deep tube well. Unsafe water sources include piped water (not boiled), surface water (e.g., pond, tank, lake, river, streams), and other sources not specified
  4. cHygienic latrines include septic tank/modern toilet and pit latrine (water sealed). Unhygienic latrines include pit latrine (not sealed), open or hanging latrine, and bush or field
  5. dEducation categories were defined as the following: some primary (1–4 years), some secondary (5–9 years), higher than secondary (10 years or more)
  6. eCo-morbid conditions: congenital heart disease, thalassemia, nephrotic syndrome, Down’s syndrome, protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and tuberculosis
  7. fVaccination status for pentavalent vaccines was collected from parents by verbal report. To be included, the child had to be age-eligible for the vaccine