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Table 2 Association between insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and type 2 diabetes related risk factors in Iraqi and Swedish born participants in the MEDIM study 2010 to 2012

From: BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population – the MEDIM population based study

Risk factors Total male study population Interaction with Iraqi ancestry Men born in Sweden Men born in Iraq1
N = 840 (R2 = 0.37) N = 293 (R2 = 0.46) N = 547 (R2 = 0.28)
β 95% CI P interaction β 95% CI β 95% CI
Born in Sweden Reference          
Born in Iraq −.102*** −.133 −.071     
Body mass index (kg/m2), per 1 SD −.053*** −.082 −.025 0.001 −.108*** −.153 −.062 NS   
Waist circumference (cm), per 1 SD −.077*** −.106 −.049 0.026 −.059** −.104 −.015 −.112*** −.132 −.093
Plasma triglycerides (mmol/L), per 1 SD −.039*** −0.54 −.024 0.042 −.056*** −.082 −.030 −.031*** −.050 −.012
Plasma HDL (mmol/L), per 1 SD .021** .005 0.37 NS NS    .022** .002 .042
Physical activity (hours/week), per 1 SD .034*** .019 .049 NS .045*** .021 .069 .027** .008 .045
Current tobacco smoking         NS   
− No Reference     Reference      
− Yes .034** .002 .066 NS NS      
First-degree Family History of Diabetes
− No Reference        Reference   
− Yes −.036*** −.067 −0.006 NS NS    −.045** −.082 −.009
Risk factors Total female study population Interaction with Iraqi ancestry Females born in Sweden Females born in Iraq1
N = 628 (R2 = 0.39) N = 245 (R2 = 0.41) N = 383 (R = 0.32)
Born in Sweden Reference          
Born in Iraq −.141*** −.174 −.107     
Body mass index (kg/m2), per 1 SD −.030* −.060 −.001 NS NS    −.039* −.078 −.001
Waist circumference (cm), per 1 SD −.090*** −.120 −.059 NS −.126*** −.155 −.096 −.085*** −.123 −.047
Plasma triglycerides (mmol/L), per 1 SD −.052*** −0.72 −.033 NS −.061*** −.092 −.030 −.061*** −.078 −.001
Plasma HDL (mmol/L), per 1 SD .022** .004 .040 NS NS    NS   
Physical activity (hours/week), per 1 SD .018* .001 .034 NS NS    .027** .005 .050
  1. Data assessed by multivariate linear regression presented as the last step in backward elimination, entry and removal of covariates at p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.1. Models adjusted for being born in Iraq (the non-stratified total models), age, male gender (non-stratified models), body mass index, waist circumference, plasma triglycerides, plasma high density lipoprotein, high sensitive C-reactive protein, physical activity, current tobacco smoking, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, economic difficulties. 1 For Iraqi born time since migration was also included as a covariate in the analysis
  2. Regression coefficients (β) for the continuous independent variables, were standardised to a unit variance (per 1 standard deviation (SD) in the strata of ethnicity and gender
  3. Interactions with country of birth were considered only when the included marginal effects were significant
  4. Variance inflation factor (VIF) <1.5
  5. ***p ≤ 0.001; **p ≤ 0.010; *p ≤ 0.050
  6. Data presented for the total study population and for males and females separately
  7. Data assessed by multivariate linear regression displaying β coefficients with 95% confidence intervals with ISI as the dependent variable