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Table 3 Internal age-standardized prevalence of behaviorala and metabolic risk factorsb for NCDs among 25–74 years old citizens in Yangon region, by sex and urban-rural location

From: Urban-rural differences in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risk factors among 25–74 years old citizens in Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross sectional study

  Male Female
Urban Rural p-value# Urban Rural p-value#
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Daily smokera 36.2 (28.4–44.2) 42.8 (35.7–49.8) 0.201 5.5 (1.7–12.7) 12.9 (10.6–15.1) 0.003*
Daily smokeless usera 39.4 (32.8–46.1) 46.9 (45.3–48.6) 0.034* 16.4 (10.2–22.7) 18.3 (11.9–24.7) 0.305
Current alcohol drinkera 28.4 (26.3–30.5) 39.0 (30.8–47.1) 0.018* 1.0 (0.2–2.3) 0.3 (0.0–0.8) 0.254
Heavy drinkera 6.5 (5.1–7.9) 9.8 (5.0–14.7) 0.178 0 0 0
Low fruit &vegetable intakea 83.8 (77.1–90.5) 97.8 (95.5–99.9) 0.001* 86.5 (82.9–90.2) 95.8 (93.6–98.0) 0.006*
Low physical activitya 12.3 (4.3–20.2) 9.7 (4.1–15.3) 0.572 9.1 (4.4–13.8) 12.7 (9.7–15.7) 0.387
Overweight and obesityb 33.4 (24.4–42.4) 19.4 (16.1–22.7) 0.008* 48.9 (41.9–56.0) 43.8 (41.9–56.0) 0.038*
Obesityb 6.9 (3.8–10.0) 3.8 (2.8–4.9) 0.061 17.3 (14.1–20.5) 11.5 (9.8–13.2) <0.001*
Central obesityb 33.1 (20.8–45.4) 32.6 (28.0–37.2) 0.941 33.4 (24.1–42.7) 41.4 (33.4–49.4) 0.235
Hypertensionb 43.1 (39.3–47.0) 37.9 (30.5–45.3) 0.190 42.2 (35.6–48.9) 41.5 (32.8–50.2) 0.587
Diabetesb 16.7 (10.4–23.1) 7.4 (4.9–10.0) 0.012* 17.7 (9.1–26.4) 10.8 (7.1–14.6) 0.049*
Hypercholesterolemiab 61.8 (51.9–71.7) 40.4 (34.0–46.9) 0.002* 50.7 (42.6–58.9) 54.2 (42.7–65.7) 0.506
Hypertriglyceridemiab 31.4 (26.7–36.0) 20.7 (14.8–26.5) 0.009* 18.4 (13.8–23.0) 18.9 (8.5–29.3) 0.795
  1. Daily smoker: currently smoke tobacco daily, Daily smokeless user: who currently daily-used any smokeless tobacco such as snuff, chewing tobacco and betel quid, current alcohol drinker- current drinker within 30 days, Heavy alcohol drinker: average alcohol intake > 40 g/day for male and >20 g/day for female, Low fruit & vegetable intake: < 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables on an average per day, Low physical activity: less than 3 days of vigorous-intensity activity of at least 20 min per week, or less than 5 days of moderate- intensity activity (with a minimum of at least 600 MET-minutes) per week, overweight: BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2), Central obesity: waist-hip ratio >0.90 for male and > 0.85 for female, Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or currently on medication for raised BP, Diabetes: Raised fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or history of diabetes, Hypercholesterolemia: ≥ 5.17 mmol/L of total cholesterol, Hypertriglyceridemia: ≥ 2.0 mmol/L of triglycerides
  2. #p- value for differences between urban and rural values, *p-value <0.05 from Wald test
  3. aBehavioral risk factor, bmetabolic risk factor