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Table 2 Internal age-standardized and WHO-age-standardized prevalence of behaviorala and metabolic risk factorsb for NCDs among 25–74 years old citizens in Yangon region, by urban-rural location

From: Urban-rural differences in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risk factors among 25–74 years old citizens in Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross sectional study

  Age-standardized prevalence Age-standardized prevalence to WHO population
Urban Rural p-value# Urban Rural
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Daily smokera 21.5 (13.0–30.1) 27.0 (23.0–31.1) 0.227 21.1 (15.1–28.6) 26.0 (22.1–30.4)
Daily smokeless usera 28.0 (21.6–34.3) 32.4 (29.2–35.5) 0.198 29.2 (22.2–37.5) 32.7 (29.4–36.1)
Current alcohol drinkera 13.9 (11.9–16.0) 19.9 (14.6–25.1) 0.040 * 16.2 (13.9–18.8) 21.2 (15.8–27.9)
Heavy drinkera 3.5 (2.5–4.4) 4.8 (1.6–7.9) 0.394 4.0 (3.0–5.3) 5.5 (2.5–11.7)
Low fruit & vegetable intakea 85.1 (79.6–90.6) 96.7 (95.3–98.1) 0.001 * 85.1 (78.9–89.7) 96.6 (95.0–97.6)
Low physical activitya 10.7 (6.4–15.0) 11.1 (7.6–14.6) 0.873 9.7 (5.9–15.5) 9.2 (6.6–12.7)
Overweight and obesityb 40.9 (33.5–48.2) 31.2 (27.9–34.5) 0.023 * 38.9 (31.1–47.4) 30.1 (26.2–34.3)
Obesityb 12.3 (8.9–15.7) 7.7 (6.2–9.2) 0.019 * 11.5 (9.2–14.4) 6.9 (5.3–8.9)
Central obesityb 33.1 (25.2–41.0) 37.0 (31.2–42.7) 0.396 29.2 (22.2–37.3) 34.3 (29.2–39.9)
Hypertensionb 41.1 (37.6–44.6) 39.7 (33.0–46.5) 0.697 37.4 (34.2–40.8) 35.3 (29.8–41.3)
Diabetesb 17.2 (10.9–23.5) 9.2 (7.0–11.5) 0.024 * 14.1 (9.0–21.3) 7.2 (5.8–8.9)
Hypercholesterolemiab 56.0 (49.2–62.8) 47.3 (40.5–54.2) 0.074 52.7 (45.6–59.7) 43.2 (35.4–51.3)
Hypertriglyceridemiab 22.8 (19.3–26.4) 19.1 (10.6–27.7) 0.394 20.6 (16.8–24.9) 17.9 (10.5–28.9)
  1. Daily smoker: currently smoke tobacco daily, Daily smokeless user: who currently daily-used any smokeless tobacco such as snuff, chewing tobacco and betel quid, current alcohol drinker- current drinker within 30 days, Heavy alcohol drinker: average alcohol intake > 40 g/day for male and >20 g/day for female, Low fruit & vegetable intake: < 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables on an average per day, Low physical activity: less than 3 days of vigorous-intensity activity of at least 20 min per week, or less than 5 days of moderate- intensity activity (with a minimum of at least 600 MET-minutes) per week, overweight: BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2), Central obesity: waist-hip ratio >0.90 for male and > 0.85 for female, Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or currently on medication for raised BP, Diabetes: Raised fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or history of diabetes, Hypercholesterolemia: ≥ 5.17 mmol/L of total cholesterol, Hypertriglyceridemia: ≥ 2.0 mmol/L of triglycerides
  2. #p- value for differences between urban and rural values *p-value <0.05 from Wald test
  3. aBehavioral risk factor, bmetabolic risk factor