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Table 2 Comparison between cohabitating and married relationships: characteristics of physical violence, including method, relationship problems, and impact on women

From: A comparison of intimate partner violence and associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women: a 5-year medical chart review

  Married (n = 833) Cohabitation (n = 132)
  Number (%) Number (%) Odds ratioa 95% CI
Head-neck-face injury 573 (68.8%) 114 (83.2%) 2.10* 1.30–3.40
Multiple injuries in different locations (i.e., head-neck-face, body truck or limbs) 355 (42.6%) 81 (59.1%) 1.82* 1.25–2.65
Multiple frequency of physical violence (i.e., 3 times or above) 429 (63.5%) 64 (56.1%) 1.00 0.99–1.00
Type of Physical Violence
 Use of weapon 142 (17%) 21 (15.3%) 0.97 0.57–1.66
 Throw things that could hurt 88 (10.6%) 12 (8.8%) 1.26 0.70–2.27
 Slapping 185 (22.2%) 36 (26.3%) 2.22* 1.39–3.55
 Punching with fist 503 (60.4%) 84 (61.3%) 1.09 0.70–1.70
 Kicking 111 (13.3%) 23 (16.8%) 1.52 0.88–2.64
 Choking 57 (6.8%) 16 (11.7%) 1.86 0.89–3.89
 Arm twisting or hair pulling 101 (12.1%) 26 (19.0%) 1.87* 1.08–3.25
 Pushing 201 (24.1%) 46 (33.6%) 1.70* 1.06–2.73
 Slamming against the wall 77 (9.2%) 22 (16.1%) 2.39* 1.34–4.25
 Using more than 1 method of above 355 (42.6%) 81 (59.1%) 1.63* 1.03–2.59
Relationship problems initiated conflicts and violence
 Other relationship affairs involved 99 (11.9%) 19 (13.9%) 1.20 0.66–2.18
 Financial problem 24 (7.3%) 4 (6.6%) 1.61 0.60–4.30
 Abuser drinking problem 50 (12.9%) 17 (27.9%) 2.28* 1.15–4.50
 Abuser use of drug problem 35 (8.2%) 6 (8.8%) 1.17 0.47–2.87
 Abuser having diagnosed mental illness 46 (11.5%) 13 (20.6%) 2.00* 1.01–3.96
Mental impact on women
 Women having drinking problem 6 (1.6%) 0 (0%) 1.20 0.34–4.18
 Women use of drug 7 (1.6%) 1 (1.4%) 1.99 0.39–10.22
 Women having diagnosed mental illness 65 (14.4%) 9 (12.3%) 0.57 0.26–1.26
Report to police 507 (60.9%) 89 (65%) 0.89 0.56–1.42
Discharged to shelterb 102 (13.0%) 19 (15.1%) 1.60 0.79–3.24
Discharged to own homeb 423 (52.5%) 60 (45.1%) 0.73 0.48–1.11
Discharged to relative or friend’s homeb 127 (16%) 28 (21.9%) 1.63 0.95–2.81
Discharged against medical adviceb 49 (6.3%) 12 (9.6%) 1.13 0.49–2.62
  1. aStepwise logistic regression analysis results after adjustment for age, education level, and local residency status (*p-value < 0.05)
  2. bSixty-one women were included in the analysis because they were initially hospitalized