Skip to main content

Table 2 List of association between EOD and health outcomes categorised by major illnesses

From: Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination

Illness/Health outcome Statistical outcome
Odds ratio Lower limit (95% CI) Upper limit (95% CI) Z-value P-value Total sample size Number of associations
A. Exposure response: yes/no
 Anxiety 2.050 1.758 2.391 9.140 0.000 13,216 13
 Depression 2.051 1.811 2.323 11.319 0.000 70,115 32
 PTSD 4.560 2.656 7.829 5.501 0.000 212 2
 Psychological disorders 2.584 2.068 3.137 9.318 0.000 13,705 3
B. Exposure response: 3-point and over
 Anxiety 2.275 1.619 3.279 4.922 0.019 11,228 37
 Depression 2.386 1.987 2.870 9.499 0.005 53,115 90
 PTSD 3.756 2.225 6.637 5.248 0.040 2021 9
 Psychological disorders 2.018 1.445 2.944 4.793 0.030 3946 11
  1. Note: This table reports the effect size of the association between EOD and health outcomes categorised by response types from a meta-analysis [14]. Panel A is based on a dichotomous measure of EOD while panel B is based on EOD measured as a categorical variable with 3-point and over response options