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Table 5 Multivariable regression analyses of the socioeconomic determinants and health risk behaviours for females

From: Prevalence and determinants of diabetes among older adults in Ghana

Characteristics Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age
 50–59 years 1 1 1 1
 60–69 years 1.84 (0.93–3.66) 2.08 (1.01–4.31)* 1.75 (0.85–3.62) 1.81 (0.85–3.85)
 70 years and above 1.63 (0.86–3.07) 2.09 (1.07–4.08)* 1.56 (0.75–3.22) 1.83 (0.88–3.80)
Residence
 Rural 1 1 1 1
 Urban 2.74 (1.62–4.63)* 1.95 (1.03–3.70)* 1.47 (0.77–2.80) 1.07 (0.56–2.05)
Education Level
 No schooling   1 1 1
 Primary School /Less   1.11 (0.56–2.19) 0.96 (0.46–1.97) 0.90 (0.45–1.82)
 Secondary /High   1.89 (0.81–4.41) 1.84 (0.79–4.26) 1.55 (0.63–3.81)
 University   1.48 (0.37–5.97) 1.34 (0.33–5.48) 1.23 (0.32–4.70)
Wealth
 1 (Lowest)   1 1 1
 2   0.44 (0.17–1.12) 0.39 (0.15–1.01) 0.33 (0.12–0.91)*
 3   0.76 (0.35–1.66) 0.57 (0.25–1.28) 0.55 (0.23–1.29)
 4   1.44 (0.65–3.17) 1.21 (0.52–2.81) 1.07 (0.43–2.67)
 5 (Highest)   1.34 (0.58–3.10) 1.02 (0.44–2.39) 0.87 (0.33–2.30)
Physical Activity
 High    1 1
 Moderate    2.79 (1.34–5.78)* 3.20 (1.53–6.69)*
 Low    2.17 (1.25–3.76)* 2.11 (1.21–3.69)*
Alcohol
 Non Drinkers    1 1
 Daily Drinkers    0.18 (0.04–0.81)* 0.18 (0.04–0.82)*
 Occasional Drinkers    1.05 (0.58–1.88) 0.97 (0.52–1.83)
 Former Drinkers    1.55 (0.75–3.20) 1.68 (0.78–3.61)
Fruits/Vegetables Intake
 Adequate    1 1
 Inadequate    0.95 (0.55–1.65) 0.98 (0.54–1.79)
Smoking
 Never Smoker    1 1
 Daily/Not Daily    1.70 (0.37–7.84) 0.76 (0.44–11.0)
 Former Smoker    1.00 (1.00–1.00) 1.00 (1.00–1.00)
Body Mass Index
 Normal     1
 Underweight     1.77 (0.69–4.51)
 Overweight     2.03 (0.74–5.57)
 Obese     4.81 (1.92–12.0)*
  1. Model I: Adjusted for socio-demographic factors (age and residence)
  2. Model II: Adjusted for socio-demographic factors (age and residence) and socioeconomic factors (education and wealth)
  3. Model III: Model II plus further adjustment for health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, fruits and vegetable intake and physical activity)
  4. Model IV: Model III with additional adjustment for anthropometric factor (Body mass index)
  5. *Significance level (p < 0.05),AOR adjusted odd ratio, CI confidence Interval