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Table 4 Multivariable regression analyses of the socioeconomic determinants and health risk behaviours for males

From: Prevalence and determinants of diabetes among older adults in Ghana

Characteristics Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age
 50–59 years 1 1 1 1
 60–69 years 2.45 (1.26–4.72)* 2.70 (1.42–5.13)* 2.77 (1.37–5.59)* 2.58 (1.29–5.18)*
 70 years and above 1.11 (0.51–2.43) 1.61 (0.91–3.62) 1.63 (0.74–3.62) 1.78 (0.80–3.97)
Residence
 Rural 1 1 1 1
 Urban 2.91 (1.54–5.53)* 1.81 (0.91–3.62) 1.54 (0.75–3.16) 1.60 (0.76–3.38)
Education Level
 No schooling   1 1 1
 Primary School/Less   2.83 (1.12–7.15)* 3.41 (1.29–9.04)* 2.71 (1.02–7.19)*
 Secondary/High   3.71 (1.60–8.61)* 3.70 (1.46–9.40)* 3.61 (1.38–9.47)*
 University   12.2 (4.47–33.3)* 12.3 (4.14–36.6)* 12.8 (4.20–39.1)*
Wealth
 1 (Lowest)   1 1 1
 2   3.22 (0.84–12.4) 2.63 (0.84–10.5) 2.44 (0.63–9.43)
 3   1.98 (0.53–7.32) 2.23 (0.53–8.81) 1.84 (0.49–6.89)
 4   3.13 (0.76–13.0) 3.29 (0.76–15.0) 1.97 (0.48–8.15)
 5 (Highest)   3.93 (1.01–15.4)* 4.29 (0.99–18.6) 2.60 (0.65–10.5)
Physical Activity
 High    1 1
 Moderate    1.78 (0.83–3. 81) 1.58 (0.71–3.56)
 Low    1.70 (0.83–3.48) 1.32 (0.67–2.59)
Alcohol
 Non Drinkers    1 1
 Daily Drinkers    1.02 (0.46–2.27) 0.90 (0.41–2.01)
 Occasional Drinkers    1.80 (0.80–4.06) 1.79 (0.78–4.09)
 Former Drinkers    1.91 (0.80–4.52) 1.91 (0.82–4.49)
Fruits/Vegetables Intake
 Adequate    1 1
 Inadequate    1.41 (0.70–2.86) 1.42 (0.69–2.90)
Smoking
 Never Smoker    1 1
 Daily/Not Daily    1.63 (0.44–6.03) 0.76 (0.20–2.86)
 Not Current Smoker    1.28 (0.71–2.30) 1.35 (0.76–2.39)
Body Mass Index     
 Normal     1
 Underweight     2.41 (0.81–7.22)
 Overweight     2.48 (0.73–8.40)
 Obese     3.74 (0.93–15.1)
  1. Model I: Adjusted for socio-demographic factors (age and residence)
  2. Model II: Adjusted for socio-demographic factors (age and residence) and socioeconomic factors (education and wealth)
  3. Model III: Model II plus further adjustment for health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, fruits and vegetable intake and physical activity)
  4. Model IV: Model III with additional adjustment for anthropometric factor (Body mass index)
  5. *Significance level (p < 0.05), AOR adjusted odd ratio, CI confidence Interval