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Table 3 Multivariable regression analyses of the socioeconomic determinants and health risk behaviours for both males and females

From: Prevalence and determinants of diabetes among older adults in Ghana

Characteristics Univariate Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Sex
 Male 1 1 1 1 1
 Female 1.38 (0.96–1.96) 1.34 (0.93–1.93) 1.81 (1.23–2.67)* 1.63 (1.07–2.50)* 1.50 (0.98–2.30)
Age
 50–59 years 1 1 1 1 1
 60–69 years 2.04 (1.21–3.45) 2.10 (1.25–3.55)* 2.41 (1.41–4.14)* 2.32 (1.32–4.07)* 2.34 (1.28–4.28)*
 70 years and above 1.33 (0.80–2.23) 1.39 (0.83–2.35) 1.96 (1.14–3.37)* 1.70 (0.96–3.01) 1.91 (1.05–3.44)*
Residence
 Rural 1 1 1 1 1
 Urban 2.77 (1.77–4.34) 2.81 (1.80–4.38)* 1.87 (1.14–3.07)* 1.45 (0.85–2.45) 1.27 (0.75–2.15)
Education Level
 No schooling 1   1 1 1
 Primary School 1.42 (0.88–2.27)   1.48 (0.89–2.47) 1.44 (0.85–2.44) 1.30 (0.76–2.19)
 Secondary/High 2.21 (1.41–3.46)   2.28 (1.33–3.89)* 2.21 (1.29–3.79)* 2.08 (1.19–3.65)*
 University 6.24 (3.30–11.8)   5.14 (2.44–10.8)* 4.90 (2.30–10.5)* 5.07 (2.35–10.9)*
Wealth
 1 (Lowest) 1   1 1 1
 2 0.88 (0.45–1.71)   0.81 (0.42–1.56) 0.71 (0.36–1.38) 0.64 (0.32–1.27)
 3 1.11 (0.56–2.21)   0.92 (0.48–1.78) 0.84 (0.43–1.66) 0.80 (0.40–1.59)
 4 2.38 (1.23–4.58)   1.58 (0.80–3.12) 1.49 (0.72–3.07) 1.18 (0.58–2.41)
 5 (Highest) 3.31 (1.81–6.08)   1.61 (0.81–3.17) 1.46 (0.72–2.96) 1.14 (0.54–2.39)
Physical Activity
 High 1    1 1
 Moderate 2.77 (1.77–4.34)    2.15 (1.32–3.50)* 2.17 (1.32–3.56)*
 Low 2.96 (2.06–4.23)    1.88 (1.24–2.85)* 1.67 (1.12–2.50)*
Alcohol
 Non Drinkers 1    1 1
 Daily Drinkers 0.53 (0.27–1.06)    0.65 (0.33–1.28) 0.59 (0.29–1.20)
 Occasional Drinkers 1.37 (0.87–2.18)    1.30 (0.81–2.10) 1.27 (0.77–2.09)
 Former Drinkers 1.87 (1.09–3.21)    1.54 (0.89–2.68) 1.57 (0.90–2.76)
Fruits/Vegetables Intake
 Adequate 1    1 1
 Inadequate 1.03 (0.68–1.58)    1.12 (0.72–1.72) 1.17 (0.69–2.90)
Smoking
 Never Smoker 1    1 1
 Daily/Not Daily 0.56 (0.22–1.43)    1.39 (0.52–3.72) 1.08 (0.38–3.08)
 Not Current Smoker 0.85 (0.52–1.38)    1.07 (0.64–1.80) 1.19 (0.71–2.01)
Body Mass Index
 Normal 1     1
 Underweight 2.08 (1.07–4.05)     1.85 (0.97–3.55)
 Overweight 2.88 (1.41–5.92)     1.91 (0.93–3.92)
 Obese 6.57 (3.03–14.3)     3.61 (1.69–7.70)*
  1. Model I: Adjusted for socio-demographic factors (age and residence)
  2. Model II: Adjusted for socio-demographic factors (age and residence) and socioeconomic factors (education and wealth)
  3. Model III: Model II plus further adjustment for health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, fruits and vegetable intake and physical activity)
  4. Model IV: Model III with additional adjustment for anthropometric factor (Body mass index)
  5. *Significance level (p < 0.05), AOR adjusted odd ratio, CI Confidence Interval