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Table 2 Prevalence of diabetes according to socioeconomic and health behavioural characteristics of the respondents

From: Prevalence and determinants of diabetes among older adults in Ghana

Characteristics Male Female Total P-value (χ2)a
% (95% CI) [n = 73] % (95% CI) [n = 89] % (95% CI) [n = 162]
Age
 50–59 years 2.44 (1.52–3.95) 3.25 (2.08–5.08) 2.83 (1.99–4.01)  
 60–69 years 5.75 (3.50–8.66) 5.75 (3.55–9.05) 5.62 (3.88–8.08) 0.01
 70 years and above 2.55 (1.45–4.59) 4.90 (3.51–7.01) 3.74 (2.70–5.17)  
Residence
 Rural 1.94 (1.21–3.15) 2.71 (1.79–4.18) 2.33 (1.65–3.27)  
 Urban 5.46 (3.61–7.93) 7.06 (5.35–9.25) 6.19 (4.75–8.03) <0.01
Level of Education
 No Schooling 1.04 (0.53–2.11) 3.72 (2.71–5.09) 2.60 (1.92–3.53)  
 Primary 3.01 (1.61–5.59) 4.42 (2.75–7.07) 3.65 (2.50–5.32) <0.01
 Secondary/High School 4.76 (3.01–6.82) 8.12 (4.73–15.8) 5.71 (4.02–7.68)  
 College/University 16.5 (9.50–27.1) 8.18 (2.63–23.4) 15.2 (8.70–22.7)  
Wealth Quintile
 1 (Lowest) 0.61 (0.19–1.97) 3.66 (2.10–6.41) 2.24 (1.34–3.79)  
 2 2.27 (1.10–4.78) 1.70 (0.84–3.50) 1.97 (1.20–3.30)  
 3 1.88 (1.00–3.53) 3.11 (1.70–5.72) 2.49 (1.59–3.92) <0.01
 4 3.73 (2.14–6.53) 7.03 (4.24–11.2) 5.24 (3.58–7.54)  
 5 (Highest) 6.81 (4.29–10.1) 7.82 (5.57–11.0) 7.20 (5.33–9.45)  
Type of Employer
 Never Employed 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 4.42 (1.11–21.5) 2.53 (0.66–11.4)  
 Public 6.75 (3.63–10.8) 6.48 (3.12–13.0) 6.69 (4.06–9.85)  
 Private 6.90 (3.37–14.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 5.28 (2.64–10.9) 0.02
 Self-employed 2.65 (1.81–3.89) 4.65 (3.56–5.96) 3.69 (2.89–4.68)  
 Informal 1.09 (0.29–4.70) 2.53 (0.99–6.85) 1.79 (0.85–4.20)  
Physical Activity
 Low 5.93 (3.55–8.90) 7.38 (5.63–9.62) 6.74 (0.42–8.51)  
 Moderate 5.21 (3.00–9.07) 7.05 (4.28–12.1) 6.10 (0.42–9.01) <0.01
 High 2.18 (1.42–3.41) 2.49 (1.64–3.80) 2.32 (0.42–3.15)  
Fruits/Vegetables Intake
 Adequate 3.27 (1.63–5.26) 4.78 (2.81–7.59) 4.01 (2.61–5.46)  
 Inadequate 3.37 (2.44–4.75) 4.42 (3.47–5.74) 3.87 (3.11–4.92) 0.85
Alcohol
 Non Drinkers 2.18 (1.26–3.95) 4.34 (3.27–5.84) 3.47 (2.70–4.58)  
 Daily Drinkers 2.29 (1.21–4.35) 0.67 (0.17–2.68) 1.88 (1.01–3.55) <0.01
 Occasional Drinkers 5.23 (2.79–8.53) 4.74 (2.85–7.44) 4.99 (3.26–6.97)  
 Former Drinkers 5.61 (3.11–9.96) 7.22 (3.79–13.4) 6.38 (4.02–10.1)  
Smoking
 Non-Smokers 3.29 (2.32–4.78) 4.65 (3.70–5.95) 4.09 (3.36–5.10)  
 Daily Smokers 1.84 (0.54–6.10) 4.01 (1.07–14.6) 2.34 (0.96–5.68) 0.41
 Former Smokers 4.17 (2.37–6.43) 1.79 (0.13–6.29) 3.86 (2.16–5.74)  
Body Mass Index
 Underweight 1.09 (0.38–3.05) 2.02 (0.91–4.59) 3.11 (2.33–4.22)  
 Normal 3.08 (2.08–4.61) 3.16 (2.08–4.87) 1.52 (0.81–2.89) <0.01
 Overweight 4.35 (2.22–6.99) 4.60 (2.71–7.71) 4.48 (2.92–6.29)  
 Obesity 7.74 (4.22–14.5) 9.97 (6.91–14.6) 9.10 (6.48–13.2)  
  1. The values are presented in percentages with the 95% confidence interval in the bracket
  2. aPearson Chi Square Test (χ2) was used to assess the relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and the socio-demographic, socioeconomic, health behaviours and anthropometric factors