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Table 7 Step 2 Performance objectives for each stakeholder and health condition

From: Healthy and productive workers: using intervention mapping to design a workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism

Mental Health Cardiovascular/Diabetes MSK Cancer Flu
a) employee
- de-stigmatize MH
- look at it differently
- open communication
- know when to seek help
- seek out positive relationships with peers/leadership
- use available resources
- minimize isolation participate in social networks
- avoid gossip or other negative behaviours
- compliance re: medication/counselling/support
- exercise minimum 30 min per day
- get adequate sleep
- proper diet/nutrition
- avoid tobacco
- minimize alcohol
- engage in stress/time management work/life balance
- discuss with manager/supervisor any limitations
a) employee
- do regular exercise (at least 20 min of walking 5 out 7 days per week)
- test for high cholesterol or high lipids in the blood
- check blood pressure (identify if they are at risk)
- eat properly - reduce fat intake, increase fibre, increase greens,
- stress management
- avoid tobacco use
- reduce refined sugars/alcohol
- be aware of the signs and symptoms and when they do occur do something about it
- monitor diet, reduced processed foods and eating out
- check BMI
- be aware of the drugs that you are taking (drug interactions can impact cardiovascular health)
- weight management
- understanding family history
- sleep hygiene
- work-life balance
- seeing family doctor for regular check-up
- medication compliance/appropriate use of medication
- discuss with manager/supervisor any limitations
- monitor BP and blood glucose regularly
a) employee
- regular exercise (30 min/day)
- seek advice on appropriate exercise/self management
- maintain adequate weight
- proper diet
- lifestyle, walking
- sit more ergonomically-appropriate work posture (reduce physical strains of sitting)
- if at risk for arthritis - need to have it checked out by health care person
- aware of links between musculoskeletal health and depression
- if they have physical limitations, need to communicate with their manager
- knowing when to seek help if they have physical pain
- take the appropriate medication
- reduce physical work hazards
- reduce stress-learn stress management skills
- yoga
- develop positive relationships with co-workers/manager/supervisors
- adapt/accommodate worksite
- take regular breaks
a) employee
- do regular exercise (at least 20 min of walking 5 out 7 days per week)
- learn self breast exam
- learn about prevention (colon/breast/skin/prostate/lung)
- know about family history and risk
- eat properly - reduce fat intake, increase fibre, increase greens, reduce alcohol use
- stress management
- avoid tobacco use
- sun protection
- be aware of the signs and symptoms and when they do occur do something about it
- monitor diet, reduced processed foods and eating out
- weight management
- adequate/sleep hygiene
- work-life balance
- seeing family doctor for regular check-up/screening
- take recommended medications and seek appropriate care compliance/appropriate use of medication
- discuss with manager/supervisor any limitations
- seek support from manager/co-workers/home/community
- learn to build positive relationships
- learn/avoid known carcinogens
- awareness of available resources
a) employee
- get the flu shot; understand the risks and benefits of the flu shot -decide whether the flu shot is right for them
- eat properly
- exercise
- get enough sleep
- wash hands
- know how to adequately wash hands work/home
- good sanitary practices at work and at home
- limit exposure to others who are sick
- if sick, limit exposure (stay home if they are sick)
- cough/sneeze into elbow not hands
- use hand sanitizers regularly
b) manager/supervisor
- adequate training/training to develop positive relationships with employees
- avoid stigma/better understanding
- discuss issues with employee/foster open communication
- know what resources are available
- employ emotional intelligence
- know when to seek help
- follow processes
- learn to identify behavioural issues
- demonstrate flexibility and compassion
- help enable employee to get better
- mentorship for prevention
- encourage employees to participate in wellness
- recognize each employees' 'normal'
- Provide positive recognition of employees
- minimize ambiguity in employee roles
b) manager/supervisor
- role model (eating properly, exercising, going out for a walk at lunch time, work-life balance, adequate weight)
- accountability - awareness of signs and symptoms of employees (e.g. arm pain)
- education/training re signs of cardiovascular disease/diabetes
- develop positive relationships with employees/subordinates - can lead to open communication, reduced stress
- accommodation/flexibility on the part of managers and supervisors
- better understanding and being active about it - providing modifications, resources
- awareness of resources available to employees (e.g. wellness programs, fitness programs)
- show compassion and concern
b) manager/supervisor
- be educated about musculo-skeletal disorders
- observe people sitting at their desk - identifying and suggesting an ergonomic assessment
- positive relationships
- role models around exercise/diet/positive attitudes/
- build and maintain positive supportive relationship
- monitor physical/stress demands
- awareness of signs and symptoms of MSK
- suggest/accommodate to workers capabilities/tolerance
b) manager/supervisor
- modify work to suit limitations
- provide support/empathy
- develop positive relationships
- aware of available resource to employees
- role model for healthy living
- monitor work stress demands
- positive communication skills
- encourage employees to engage in wellness programs
- recognize early signs…weight loss, change in behaviours, malaise, excessive time off work etc.
- show compassion and concern
b) manager/supervisor
- support staff if they need to stay home if they are sick
- manage work, clients
- understand the HR absence policies and processes and share with the team - make sure everyone is aware of the steps they need to take if they are sick (who to call, how often to check in)
- be a role model in terms of doing the necessary healthy behaviours (eating well, exercising, washing hands)
- instructing employees for where they can find resources that explain the benefits and risks flu shot (education)
c) co-workers
- de-stigmatize mental health
- be supportive
- Work together common goals and objectives
- be observant
- look after each other
- respect confidentiality
- help create a positive environment
- don't turn a blind eye
- reach out to manager when needed
- learn about mental illness
- show compassion and concern
c) co-workers
- awareness of early signs, identify amongst co-workers (fostering knowledge)
- support, positive relationships
- show compassion and concern
- Work together common goals and objectives
- positive role model (engage in healthy behaviours and wellness programs)
c) co-workers
- going for walks
- adequate weight
- support, positive relationships
- show compassion and concern
- Work together common goals and objectives
- positive healthy role models(eating, exercise, weight, attitudes, relationships, use of proper ergonomic, work-life balance)
- awareness of signs and symptoms of MSK
c) co-workers
- positive healthy role models (eating, exercise, weight, attitudes, relationships, work-life balance)
- show compassion, support and concern
c) co-workers
- be a positive role model
- get the flu shot; understand the risks and benefits of the flu shot - decide whether the flu shot is right for them
- eat properly
- exercise
- get enough sleep
- wash hands
- know how to adequately wash hands work/home
- good sanitary practices at work and at home
- limit exposure to others who are sick
- if sick, limit exposure (stay home if they are sick)
- cough/sneeze into elbow not hands
- use hand sanitizers regularly
d) directors/senior management
- leadership to prioritize mental health
- invest time and budget
- walk the talk
- lead by example
- participate in training
- learn to identify behavioural issues
- demonstrate flexibility and compassion
- enable employee to get better
- mentorship for prevention
- encourage employees to participate in wellness
- training to develop positive relationships with employees
- foster open communication
- recognize each employees' 'normal'
- Provide positive recognition of employees
d) directors/senior management
- role models, walk the talk (diet, exercise, lifestyle, work-life balance) lead by example
- have training with regards to Cardiovascular Disease
- demonstrating accommodation, flexibility
- expressing to managers - compassion, understanding, proactive nature of direction
- positive relationships
- allow for budgeting for programs related to cardiovascular/diabetes disease (providing time and resources to educate)
d) directors/senior management
- positive role model
- resources around ergonomics
- training in musculo-skeletal health
- money, resources, time
- walk the walk - make sure they are sitting properly with the correct equipment
d) directors/senior management
- role models, walk the talk (diet, exercise, lifestyle, work-life balance) lead by example
- expressing to managers - compassion, understanding, be proactive
- allow for budgeting for programs related to cancer (providing time and resources to educate)
- training to develop positive relationships with employees
- foster open communication
- encourage flexibility among mangers/supervisors
d) directors/senior management
- education and awareness about prevention - providing information
- e.g. biometric screening clinics, flu prevention
- make sure everyone knows the plan- business continuity (e.g. flu pandemic) - having a plan in place for what the organization should do
- awareness of daycare programs
e) organization
- benchmarking - comparing organization to others re mental health
- establish mission and philosophy around health of employees
- communicate expectations and procedures to managers and employees
- set the tone for the culture
- enforce policies and procedures
- align policies and procedures to philosophy
- know the standards from regulatory bodies (e.g. mental health commission of Canada)
- provide resources for training managers/supervisors/employees
- invest in social capital
e) organization
- benchmarking - how well are we doing in comparison with other companies with regards to cardiovascular/diabetic claims?
- mission statement, main message around health in general
- communication around expectations re: health/wellness-make health/wellness the norm
- culture - how important is the well-being of our employees
- policies and procedures related to wellness and prevention
- instill/facilitate a health/safety culture
- invest in social capital
e) organization
- benchmarking- how well are we doing in comparison with other companies with regards to MSK claims?
- instill/facilitate a health/safety culture
- policies and procedures related to wellness and prevention
- communication around expectations re: health/safety/wellness-make health/wellness the norm
- provide resources for training managers/supervisors/ employees
- invest in social capital
e) organization
- benchmarking - how well are we doing in comparison with other companies with regards to cancer related claims?
- mission statement, main message around health in general
- instill/facilitate a health/safety culture
- policies and procedures related to wellness and prevention
- communication around expectations re: health/wellness-make health/wellness the norm
- invest in social capital
e) organization
- having the right practices and policies in place to support short-term absences due to illness (e.g. offering personal illness days to employees, ensuring this benefit aligns with employees' needs)
- resources
- provide the flu shot clinic for those who are interested in getting the shot
- business continuity (e.g. flu pandemic) - having a plan in place for what the organization should do
- invest in social capital
f) family/partner/spouse/community
- supportive environment
- understanding of mental health and reduced stigmatization
- understanding of the impact of mental health on the individual
- discuss openly and honestly with the person having mental health problems
- recommendation to seek help, not be afraid to seek help
- positive influence
- foster awareness about available support and programs (community perspective)
- taking ownership for investigating what programs and support are available (partner, family perspective)
- have resources available for people who need help when they need it (community)
- targeting at a young age- bringing awareness and providing resources to all demographics (identification of the signs)
f) family/partner/spouse community
- being aware of early signs of Cardiovascular Disease
- encourage family members to go to the doctor for check-ups
- encourage healthy eating, diet, nutrition at home
- encourage exercise, more walking
- proper use of medication - being aware of and providing support for proper use of medication
- education on signs and symptoms/prevention
f) family/partner/spouse community
- encourage physical activity, healthy weight
- education around how to lift properly
- model for healthy living
- education on proper ergonomic at home
- understanding role of self-management in chronic MSK disorders
- understand the relationship between chronic MSK and depression/anxiety
- make regular exercise proper ergonomics and healthy eating the norm
- provide encouragement and support for ongoing treatment
- awareness of the role and potential negative consequences of narcotic use for pain
f) family/partner/spouse community
- positive healthy role models (eating, exercise, weight, attitudes, relationships, work-life balance)
- make healthy lifestyle the norm
- provide emotional support and encouragement
- understand the impact cancer can have on the individual
- support/assistance in treatment…chemotherapy/radiation/medication treatment and be aware of side-effects
- be aware of community/work resources/support groups to assist in management
- awareness of the role and potential consequences of narcotic use for pain
- aware of Canadian Cancer Society resources
f) family/partner/spouse community same as above (employee and co-worker)
- providing support to people that want to take the shot
- provide information, education
- provide support for the people that need to stay home
- provide opportunity to citizens to have the shot
- hygiene education in terms of prevention
g) health care practitioners
- ability to screen for individuals at high risk and provide appropriate interventions (e.g. referral, medication, counselling, etc.)
- stay up-to-date and current with regards to mental health trends in Canada (number of Canadians impacted - stimulate dialogue about prevalence, reducing stigma/treatment, resources)
- explaining to employees why information is provided to different stakeholders so that appropriate case management and adjudication happens - having more dialogue with the employee, providing teaching and information about why it is important to provide information up front
- holistic approach (combination of medications, therapy, etc.) commitment to keep working at a treatment plan
- follow-up - is the treatment plan working? what adjustments are needed? ongoing case management at the doctor-patient level
g) health care practitioners
- provide screening for high risk individuals
- provide appropriate interventions
- provide educational resources for people to look for in terms of Cardiovascular disease and risks
- counseling in terms of exercise and diet, provide appropriate resources
- regular follow-ups to see if risk factors are under control
- balancing pharmacological with non-pharmacological interventions
g) health care practitioners
- identification, follow-up, assessment
- aware of ergonomic issues, educate patients on proper ergonomics/prevention
- recommend/refer for appropriate treatment/management
- encourage to stay active
- communicate with workplace for work modification
- positive role model
g) health care practitioners
- appropriate screening and management
- communication with workplace on work modification
- provide emotional support and educate family members
- provide patient education on prevention and self monitoring
- educate on community resources
- positive role model
- educate on self monitoring
g) health care practitioners
- education, especially for high-risk people
- providing the flu shot for those that want it
- education in the area of prevention
- dispensing medication that is needed
- be clear to the employee on restrictions and limitations (e.g. when they can return to the office)
- communication via employee to the workplace - between health care provider's recommendations to the workplace, via the employee
- provide people with information regarding alternatives to medicine
- EAP - provide education, daycare issues, family care (consequences, what to do)
h) high risk employees
- same as employees
- read emails and information about health promotion
- make people more aware and find ways for them to become more aware about available programs, become more proactive, rather than reactive
- take accountability for themselves - accept that they are responsible for their own behaviour (other stakeholders are not responsible to ensure that people take appropriate action)
- leaders also need to create capacity for people to participate
h) high risk employees
- same as employees
- responsibility and accountability
- education (same as mental health)
h) high risk employees
- same as employees
- ask for ergonomic assessment
- use proper postures at work
h) high risk employees
- same as employees
h) high risk employees
- same as employee
  1. EAP employee assistance program, MH mental health, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, MSK musculoskeletal, HR+ human resources