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Table 1 Descriptive bivariate association between independent factors and intentions to keep TB status secret

From: Individual, household and community level factors associated with keeping tuberculosis status secret in Ghana

Explanatory variables Females Males
N % N %
Individual level
 Education χ 2 = 25.3; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 17.1; p < 0.001
  No education 1,138 65.8 342 84.1
  Primary 1,163 65.0 410 77.0
  Secondary 4,681 67.1 2,532 73.5
  Tertiary 576 78.0 492 77.5
 Age group χ 2 = p < 0.001 χ 2 = 57.2; p < 0.001
  15–19 1,070 57.8 633 66.9
  20–24 1,275 65.8 499 68.4
  25–29 1,340 67.7 527 76.6
  30–34 1,161 69.9 486 77.1
  35–39 1,093 69.9 425 76.3
  40–44 878 72.9 413 81.9
  45–49 739 69.7 319 80.9
  50–54 276 78.5
  55–59 196 83.1
 Marital status χ 2= 15.3; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 32.2; p < 0.001
  Never married 2,415 63.6 1,525 70.1
  Married/In-union 4,287 69.8 2,043 78.6
  Formerly married 856 66.4 209 81.4
Household level
 Household wealth quintile χ 2 = 34.5; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 6.3; p < 0.175
  Poorest 862 64.8 529 81.6
  Poorer 1,237 64.3 658 76.7
  Average 1553 65.7 725 75.5
  Richer 1,879 66.6 873 71.2
  Richest 2,027 72.6 991 74.6
Community variables
 Ethnicity χ 2 = 168.0; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 54.7; p < 0.001
  Akan 4,173 65.7 1,961 71.1
  Ga/Dangme 600 67.8 352 83.4
  Ewe 1,014 81.1 521 84.1
  Mole-Dagbani 935 60.7 484 78.3
  Gurma 259 71.9 177 80.5
  Others 575 64.0 281 15.7
 Religion χ 2= 33.9;p < 0.001 χ 2 = 8.1; p < 0.089
  Orthodox Christian 1,852 67.3 956 75.9
  Pentecostal 3,210 68.9 1,158 73.0
  Other Christian 1,228 61.1 698 77.7
  Moslem 995 74.6 625 79.3
  Traditional/Others 272 74.6 339 79.3
 Region χ 2 = 330.0; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 339.7; p < 0.001
  Western 935 65.4 436 72.3
  Central 776 56.2 379 88.7
  Greater Accra 1,681 77.4 823 87.8
  Volta 538 83.8 279 85.3
  Eastern 658 68.9 381 76.8
  Ashanti 1,582 66.6 735 50.6
  Brong-Ahafo 596 52.1 302 63.2
  Northern 390 69.1 264 95.3
  Upper East 251 48.6 99 73.2
  Upper West 151 57.8 75 69.3
 Residence χ 2 = 0.01 p < 0.893 χ 2 = 5.7; p < 0.016
  Urban 4,410 67.9 2,052 72.1
  Rural 3,149 66.7 1,725 79.3
Media exposure variables
 Newspaper/Magazine χ 2 = 6.5; p < 0.038 χ 2 = 13.4; p < 0.001
  Not at all 5,904 66.9 2,335 73.6
  Less than once a week 880 66.7 721 81.8
  At least once a week 769 66.4 719 81.4
 Radio χ 2 = 7.3; p < 0.038 χ 2 = 25.0; p < 0.001
  Not at all 910 67.2 166 55.3
  Less than once a week 2,426 67.7 577 82.4
  At least once a week 4,223 67.4 3,034 75.1
 Television χ 2 = 16.1; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 11.7; p < 0.003
  Not at all 1,430 64.9 540 73.6
  Less than once a week 2,019 68.8 685 82.8
  At least once a week 4,110 67.4 2,552 73.7
Views about HIV disclosure
 Keeping HIV & AIDS in family secret χ 2 = 1.2;p < 0.001 χ 2 = 799.5; p < 0.001
  No 3,381 88.9 2,097 93.1
  Yes 4,116 49.8 1,665 52.8