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Table 4 Univariate and adjusted analysis of variables associated with high PTE scores among adolescent women (n = 442)

From: Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

  Low PTE score High PTE score p-value High PTE score vs. Low PTE score
Variables n % n % Wilcoxon/Chisq OR 95% CI   AOR 95% CI
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age 17 16,18 18 16,18 0.182 1.10 0.97 1.24 Not Selected
Years lived in Soweto
 < 5 years 22 9.0 22 11.3 0.511 Ref      
 ≥ 5 years 28 11.5 27 13.9   0.96 0.44 2.13    
 Since birth 194 79.5 146 74.9   0.75 0.40 1.41    
Ethnicity
 Zulu 104 42.5 75 38.1 0.764 Ref      
 Xhosa 29 11.8 24 12.2   1.15 0.62 2.13    
 Sotho 48 19.6 36 18.3   1.04 0.62 1.76    
 Tswana 29 11.8 30 15.2   1.43 0.79 2.59    
 Other 35 14.3 32 16.2   1.27 0.72 2.23    
Employment
 Student 217 89.7 168 85.3 0.379 Ref      
 Unemployed 19 7.85 22 11.17   1.50 0.78 2.85    
 Employed 6 2.5 7 3.6   1.51 0.50 4.57    
Housing
 House owned by family 184 75.1 143 72.6 0.577 Ref      
 House rented by family/Other 6 2.5 3 1.5   0.64 0.16 2.62    
 RDP house/Shack 55 22.45 51 25.89   1.19 0.77 1.85    
Food Insecurity
 Low 77 31.4 33 16.8 <.001 Ref    Ref   
 Medium 71 29.0 44 22.3   1.45 0.83 2.52 1.49 0.84 2.65
 High 97 39.6 120 60.9   2.89 1.77 4.70 2.57 1.55 4.26
Household ever Received Social Grant
 No 112 46.1 72 36.7 0.048 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes 131 53.9 124 63.3   1.47 1.00 2.16   
Sexual behaviour and HIV variables
HIV testing history
 No 139 57.0 88 44.7 0.010 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes 105 43.0 109 55.3   1.64 1.12 2.39   
HIV Result
 Positive 3 1.2 3 1.5 0.131 Ref      
 Negative 102 41.6 100 50.8   0.98 0.19 4.97    
 Unknown 140 57.1 94 47.7   0.67 0.13 3.40    
Sex Ever
 No 142 58.0 80 40.6 <.001 Ref    Not included*   
 Yes 103 42.0 117 59.4   2.02 1.38 2.95   
STI or STI symptomology
 No 80 32.7 79 40.1 <.001 Ref      
 Yes 23 9.4 38 19.3   1.67 0.91 3.06    
 Never had sex 142 58.0 80 40.6   0.57 0.38 0.86    
Sexually Active L6M
 No 41 16.9 32 16.3 <.001 Ref      
 Yes 60 24.7 84 42.9   1.79 1.02 3.17    
 Never had sex 142 58.4 80 40.8   0.72 0.42 1.24    
Inconsistent condom use
 Never had sex 142 59.7 80 41.0 <.001 Ref    Ref   
 No 52 21.9 44 22.6   1.50 0.92 2.44 1.59 0.96 2.63
 Yes 44 18.5 71 36.4   2.86 1.80 4.56 2.69 1.66 4.37
More than 1 partner in L6M
 No 49 20.2 68 34.9 <.001 Ref    Not included*   
 Yes 11 4.5 15 7.7   0.98 0.42 2.32   
 Never had sex/Sexually inactive 183 75.3 112 57.4   0.44 0.29 0.68   
Substance use and mental health variables
Alcohol Use in the L6M
 No 102 42.0 61 31.1 0.019 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes 141 58.0 135 68.9   1.60 1.08 2.38    
Probable Depression
 No 176 71.8 105 53.3 <.001 Ref    Ref   
 Yes (score ≥ 24) 69 28.2 92 46.7   2.23 1.51 3.32 2.00 1.31 3.03
Incarceration history
 No 226 97.4 162 93.1 0.037 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes 6 2.6 12 6.9   2.79 1.03 7.59   
Drug use ever in L6M (excluding marijuana use)
 No 239 97.6 192 97.5 0.952 Ref      
 Yes 6 2.5 5 2.5   1.04 0.31 3.45    
  1. Note: AORs in bold are significant (<.05)
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals; OR odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CES-D center for epidemiologic studies- depression scale, RDP reconstruction and development programme, STI sexually transmitted infection, HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  3. *Not included due to Collinearity