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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants (aged 14–19 years) overall and by gender (n = 767)

From: Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

Baseline characteristics Overall (n = 767) Adolescent Men (n = 325) Adolescent Women (n = 442) p-value
  n % n % n %  
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age at interview (years, median, Q1,Q3) 17 16,18 17 16,18 18 16,18 0.197
Years lived in Soweto
 < 5 years 71 9.4 27 8.4 44 10.0 0.347
 ≥ 5 years 106 14.0 51 15.9 55 12.5  
 Since birth 582 76.7 242 75.6 340 77.5  
 missing 8   5   3   
Ethnicity
 Zulu 345 45.0 166 51.1 179 40.5 0.005
 Xhosa 92 12.0 39 12.0 53 12.0  
 Sotho 124 16.2 40 12.3 84 19.0  
 Tswana 85 11.1 26 8.0 59 13.4  
 Other ethnicities 121 15.8 54 16.6 67 15.2  
Education
 ≥ High school 9 1.2 7 2.2 2 0.5 0.041
 < High school 758 98.8 318 97.9 440 99.6  
Employment
 Student 649 85.1 264 81.5 385 87.7 0.056
 Unemployed 85 11.1 44 13.6 41 9.3  
 Employed 29 3.8 16 4.9 13 3.0  
 Missing <5   <5   <5   
Housing
 Brick house/Flat owned by family 547 71.3 220 67.7 327 74.0 0.160
 Brick house/Flat rented by family/other 18 2.3 9 2.8 9 2.0  
 RDP house/Shack 202 26.3 96 29.5 106 24.0  
Food Insecurity
 Low 169 22.0 59 18.2 110 24.9 0.078
 Medium 203 26.5 88 27.1 115 26.0  
 High 395 51.5 178 54.8 217 49.1  
Household Social Grant in the last 12 months
 No 325 42.9 141 44.3 184 41.9 0.506
 Yes 432 57.1 177 55.7 255 58.1  
 missing 10   7   3   
Incarceration history
 No 646 93.8 258 91.2 388 95.6 0.019
 Yes 43 6.2 25 8.8 18 4.4  
 Missing 78   42   36   
Sexual behaviour and HIV variables
Ever had sex
 No 338 44.1 116 35.7 222 50.2 <.001
 Yes 429 55.9 209 64.3 220 49.8  
Sexually Active in the past 6 months (L6M)a
 No 153 36.5 80 39.6 73 33.6 0.205
 Yes 266 63.1 122 60.4 144 66.4  
 missing 10   7   3   
Number of partners (among those reporting sexual activity in L6M)b
 1 partner 168 64.6 51 43.6 117 81.8 <.001
 ≥ 2 partner 92 35.4 66 56.4 26 18.2  
 Missing 6       
Condom usea
 Consistent condom use 189 46.3 93 47.2 96 45.5 0.729
 Inconsistent condom use 219 53.7 104 52.8 115 54.5  
 missing 21   12   9   
HIV testing history
 No 414 54.1 187 57.7 227 51.5 0.087
 Yes 351 45.9 137 42.3 214 48.5  
HIV status (self-report)
 HIV-positive 11 1.4 5 1.5 6 1.4 0.187
 HIV-negative 329 42.9 127 39.1 202 45.7  
 Unknown/never tested 427 55.7 193 59.4 234 52.9  
STI or STI symptomologya
 No 332 77.4 173 82.8 159 72.3 <.001
 Yes 97 22.6 36 17.2 61 27.7  
Substance use and mental health variables
Alcohol use in the last 6 months (L6M)
 No 267 34.99 104 32.1 163 37.1 0.150
 Yes 496 65.01 220 67.9 276 62.9  
Drug use in L6M (excluding marijuana use)
 No 728 94.9 297 91.4 431 97.5 <.001
 Yes 39 5.1 28 8.6 11 2.5  
Probable Depression
 No 510 66.5 229 70.5 281 63.6 0.046
 Yes (CES-D score ≥ 24) 257 33.5 96 29.5 161 36.4  
  1. Note: p-values in bold are significant (<.05)
  2. Abbreviations: CES-D center for epidemiologic studies- depression scale, RDP reconstruction and development programme, STI sexually transmitted infection, HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  3. aAmong those reporting sexual activity ever
  4. bAmong those reporting sexual activity in the last 6 month