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Table 4 Key measures

From: The Physical Activity and Redesigned Community Spaces (PARCS) Study: Protocol of a natural experiment to investigate the impact of citywide park redesign and renovation

Construct Variables (Sources)
Physical activity (PA, total volume)
Primary outcome
• Accelerometry data (ActiGraph GT3X-BT)
PA in study parks
Secondary outcome
• GPS data (ActiPalTM app)
Improvements in park features, programs and quality (direct observation)
Process/fidelity measures
• SOPARC: accessible, usable, equipped, supervised, organized activity, dark, empty [18]
• NYC Parks checklist: sustainability, accessibility, community health, safety and utility features, programming, partnerships
• Park Quality Index: sustainability, beautification, community health, recreational options, accessibility, utility, safety
Park usage and engagement
• Direct observation through SOPARC: count of park users, gender, age, level of PA [18]
• Self-reported reason for visit, visit length, mode of transport to park, visit companions, travel time, frequency of park usage in past 3 months, level of PA while at park in past 3 months [4]
• Text-based self-reported diary of park usage
Park satisfaction and perception
• Accessibility, well kept, safety, ability to relax in park, ability to use for recreational purposes, walking distance, sufficient in neighborhood [24, 25]
• Perception of neighborhood parks: overall quality, usage, attractive, safety, maintenance, shade, dog walking facilities, presence of gangs or vandalism, children’s interest in parks, time to walk to park, importance of particular park features for encouraging park-based physical activity [4]
Psychosocial/mental health
Secondary outcomes
• Perceived Stress Scale [26]
• Quality of Life Short-Form 12 [27]
• Public Health Surveillance Well-being Scale [28]
• Self-efficacy for Exercise Behaviors [29]
• Social support for exercise behaviors [30]
Community wellbeing
Secondary outcomes
• Social cohesion [33]
• Perceived physical environment (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale) [35]
• Contact with friends and neighbors [31]
• Neighborhood Social Ties [32]
• Sense of Community Index [34]
Demographic information
Covariates, moderators
Negative controls
• Age, sex, gender identification, income level, employment status, education level, marital status, number of children, size of household, language spoken at home, length of residency in neighborhood, smoking status, sexual orientation [12]
• Flu shot behavior [12], coffee consumption [13]
• flu shot behavior [57], coffee consumption [58]
• Daily high and low temperatures, humidity and rain/sun conditions