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Table 2 Associationsa between mental symptoms (GHQ-12) and mortality. Men and women pooled (n = 6605)

From: Mental symptoms and cause-specific mortality among midlife employees

  Model 1b
HR 95 % CI
Model 2
HR 95 % CI
Model 3
HR 95 % CI
Model 4
HR 95 % CI
Model 5
HR 95 % CI
Model 6
HR 95 % CI
All-cause mortality 1.06 (0.94, 1.20) 1.06 (0.94, 1.19) 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) 1.00 (0.89, 1.13) 1.02 (0.90, 1.15) 0.98 (0.86, 1.11)
Natural mortality 0.97 (0.84, 1.11) 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) 0.97 (0.85, 1.12) 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) 0.93 (0.81, 1.07) 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)
Unnatural mortality 1.96 (1.45, 2.64) 1.88 (1.39, 2.54) 1.96 (1.45, 2.64) 1.82 (1.33, 2.48) 1.75 (1.28, 2.40) 1.61 (1.17, 2.22)
Suicidal mortality 2.20 (1.47, 3.29) 2.09 (1.39, 3.15) 2.17 (1.46, 3.23) 2.13 (1.41, 3.21) 1.88 (1.24, 2.87) 1.71 (1.11, 2.63)
  1. aHazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) from Cox regression analysis with age as time axis. Models
  2. bModels: Model 1 (M1) = + sex; Model 2 = M1 + marital status + social support; Model 3 = M1 + social class; Model 4 = M1 + drinking problems, smoking, physical exercise, BMI; Model 5 = M1 + limiting long-standing illness; Model 6 = + all covariates