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Table 2 List of identified factors by cluster in ascending order

From: Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course): a DEDIPAC-study

Factor
#
Statement by cluster Priority for
Research
Modifiability Population Level Effect p
Youth Adult Old Adult  
Cluster 1: Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing
 3 Actual Body Mass Index 3.6 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 1.0 0.032
 4 Actual PA level 4.1 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1.0 n.s.
 5 Addictions (Smoking Gambling Drugs) 3.0 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.2b 3.2 ± 1.1a 2.9 ± 1.2 0.015
 7 Age 2.4 ± 1.0 1.8 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4c 3.2 ± 1.4 3.7 ± 1.3a 0.002
 10 Beliefs/Values 3.3 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.2 3.6 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1 n.s.
 11 Capability to Combine Sport and Education/Work Requirements (Dual Career) 3.1 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.3c 3.8 ± 1.1c 1.7 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 14 Cognitive Function 3.0 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.3c 3.1 ± 1.2c 3.9 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 15 Conscious Control of Automated Body Movements 3.0 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.2 3.2 ± 1.3 n.s.
 23 Emotions 3.3 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.3 3.5 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1 n.s.
 26 Fear of Injuries/Falling 3.1 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 1.1bc 2.9 ± 0.9ac 4.6 ± 0.6ab <0.001
 27 Feeling of Inadequacy (Too Clumsy/Too Old)/Teasing 3.3 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 0.8c 3.6 ± 1.1b 0.024
 31 Gender 2.1 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 1.2 n.s.
 33 Genetics/Talent 2.0 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.2bc 2.4 ± 1.2a 2.2 ± 1.3a <0.001
 38 Health Status 3.7 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 1.1bc 4.0 ± 0.9ac 4.4 ± 0.8ab <0.001
 39 Hormesis (Dose–response)/Training Response 2.7 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 1.0 n.s.
 41 Intentions/Attitudes 3.5 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 1.1 n.s.
 44 Job/Occupation-Related Energy Expenditure 2.8 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.1b 3.7 ± 1.1ac 2.0 ± 1.1ab <0.001
 46 Level of Autonomy/Time Management 3.4 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0bc 3.9 ± 1.0ac 3.4 ± 1.1ab <0.001
 47 Life Satisfaction 3.4 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.2bc 3.7 ± 1.0a 3.8 ± 1.0a <0.001
 57 Overweight/Obesity In Previous Years 2.6 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1b 3.5 ± 1.1a 3.3 ± 1.1 0.028
 64 Past Exercise Behaviour/Experience 2.7 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 1.2 3.2 ± 1.2c 3.5 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 1.1a 0.003
 65 Perceived Barriers 3.4 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.1c 3.6 ± 1.0c 4.1 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 66 Perceived Benefits of PA 3.7 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.2bc 3.9 ± 1.0a 4.0 ± 0.9a <0.001
 67 Perceived Fatigue/Adverse Physiological Response 3.3 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.1c 3.4 ± 1.0§ 3.9 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 68 Perceived Safe Environment 3.3 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.2§ 3.3 ± 0.9c 4.0 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 70 Perceived Stress/Life Stressors 3.1 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.2bc 3.7 ± 0.9ac 3.3 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 71 Personal Goals/Outcome Expectancies/Achievement Orientation/Motivation 3.8 ± 0.7 3.8 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.2a 4.1 ± 1.0a 3.8 ± 1.0 0.026
 72 Personality Traits 2.8 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 1.3 n.s.
 73 Physical Fitness Levels (Strength, Endurance, Coordination, Agility, Flexibility) 3.9 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 0.9 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0c 4.1 ± 1.0b 0.022
 76 Psychological Disorders (Depression, Eating Disorders, Emotional Symptoms) 3.1 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.2c 3.4 ± 1.2 3.6 ± 1.0a 0.002
 85 Self PA Monitoring 3.5 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.2b 3.6 ± 0.8ac 3.2 ± 0.9b 0.002
 86 Self Perceptions (Awareness, Confidence, Efficacy, Body Image, PA level) 3.6 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0 n.s.
 87 Self-Regulatory Ability 3.2 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 1.0bc 3.4 ± 1.1a 3.5 ± 0.9a 0.003
 88 Sensation Seeking 2.6 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 1.8 3.0 ± 1.3c 2.9 ± 1.2c 2.2 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 89 Sleep Quality/Quantity 3.2 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.2c 3.3 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.0a 0.012
 98 Sub-Pathology/Pathology/Injuries/Pain/Rehabilitation 3.0 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.2bc 3.2 ± 1.1ac 4.0 ± 1.1ab <0.001
 100 Time Availability 3.3 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.0bc 4.2 ± 0.8ac 2.8 ± 1.1ab <0.001
Cluster 2: Family and Socio-Economic Status
 22 Educational Level (Parents/Relatives) 2.6 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.1c 3.2 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.3a 0.003
 25 Ethnicity 1.9 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 1.2 n.s.
 51 Marital Status (for Children: Marital Status of Parents) 2.4 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.0bc 2.8 ± 1.1a 2.7 ± 1.2a <0.001
 63 Parents/Relatives/Peers Body Mass Index 2.5 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.1c 2.8 ± 1.1c 2.2 ± 1.1ab <0.001
 69 Perceived Social Role 3.0 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.3 3.1 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0 n.s.
 81 Rewards (Encouragement/Support) 3.5 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.2bc 3.2 ± 1.0a 3.1 ± 1.0a <0.001
 90 Social Competence/Role 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.2 3.1 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.0 n.s.
 91 Social Economic Status/Personal Income (for Children: Parents’ Income)/ Level of Education 2.9 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.0 n.s.
Cluster 3: Policy and Provision
 1 Academic Training Programmes for Health Practitioners 3.2 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.2 n.s.
 8 Architecture and Urbanization (Availability/Access/Proximity of Elevators
Escalators Facilities In Public Buildings)
3.0 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.0bc 3.2 ± 1.1a 3.5 ± 1.1a <0.001
 9 Availability/Access/Proximity of PA Organized Sport Facilities Tools 3.6 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 0.9 3.7 ± 1.0 n.s.
 12 City Planning 3.0 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 n.s.
 13 City/Nation Density 2.0 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 1.1 2.1 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 1.1 n.s.
 16 Corporate Social Responsibilities 2.6 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.0b 2.7 ± 1.1a 2.3 ± 1.1 0.004
 17 Corporate Social Responsibility Interventions 2.8 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 1.2b 2.9 ± 1.1ac 2.3 ± 1.2b 0.001
 20 Distance to School/Work/Destination 3.0 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 0.9c 3.5 ± 1.1c 2.8 ± 1.4ab <0.001
 21 Education Policies 2.9 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1bc 2.3 ± 1.1a 2.1 ± 1.1a <0.001
 24 Environmental Policies 3.0 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.0 n.s.
 28 Financial Measures and Regulation for PA and Sport 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 1.1 n.s.
 29 Fiscal Advantages For Sport Clubs/PA Services 2.9 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.1 n.s.
 30 Funding for Sport Federation 2.7 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 1.0c 2.5 ± 1.0c 2.1 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 37 Health Education 3.5 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.0 n.s.
 40 Indoor Condition (Air Conditioning) 2.8 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 0.9c 2.4 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.0a <0.001
 45 Leisure Activity Subsidy 3.0 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.1 n.s.
 48 Lobbying 2.4 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.0 n.s.
 50 Mandatory PA in Community/Schools 3.1 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 1.1 4.0 ± 1.0bc 2.4 ± 1.1a 2.3 ± 1.3a <0.001
 53 Media and Advertising Regulation by Public Authorities Corporate Social
Responsibility Programmes
3.0 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.0 n.s.
 54 Mobility Policy 2.8 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1.0c 2.6 ± 1.1c 3.1 ± 1.2ab <0.001
 56 Outdoor Condition (Pollution and Weather-Season) 2.6 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.0c 3.0 ± 0.9c 3.4 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 58 PA and Sport Organizations Advocacy 3.1 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.2 n.s.
 59 PA Education (at School/Work)/Knowledge of Effects of PA 3.4 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.1bc 3.2 ± 1.3a 2.8 ± 1.1a <0.001
 60 PA Programs in School/Office/Community 3.6 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.0bc 3.4 ± 1.1a 3.4 ± 1.2a <0.001
 61 PA Programs/Plans 3.6 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1 n.s.
 77 Public Health 3.0 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.1bc 3.1 ± 1.1a 3.4 ± 1.1a <0.001
 78 Public Organized Sport Events/PA Activities (Field Trips) 3.4 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.1 n.s.
 79 Public Transport Policies 3.0 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.0 n.s.
 80 Public Transport System 3.1 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.1c 3.4 ± 1.0b 0.034
 82 Rights of Citizenship 1.9 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.9 n.s.
 83 School/Office Hours 2.7 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.1bc 3.8 ± 0.9ac 1.7 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 84 School/Office Space 2.7 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.1c 3.2 ± 1.2c 1.6 ± 0.8ab <0.001
 96 Sport Science Research 3.1 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.1 n.s.
 97 Sports Facilities 3.4 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 0.9c 3.7 ± 0.8c 3.2 ± 0.9ab 0.001
 102 Traffic 2.7 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.2 n.s.
 103 Traffic Policies 2.8 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.2 n.s.
 104 Transport Policies 2.9 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 1.1c 2.8 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.2a 0.014
 106 Urban Planning Policies 3.0 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 1.2 n.s.
Cluster 4: Cultural Context and Media
 6 Advertisement 3.1 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.2 3.1 ± 1.1c 2.8 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 1.1a 0.004
 18 Cultural Climate 2.6 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.2 n.s.
 19 Cyber Space 2.7 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.3 3.3 ± 1.4bc 2.5 ± 1.1ac 1.8 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 32 Gender Equality 2.6 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.3 2.8 ± 1.2c 2.3 ± 1.0b 0.040
 35 Group Activity (Outdoor/Indoor) 3.6 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 0.8b 3.5 ± 0.8a 3.8 ± 0.9 0.016
 42 Internet Availability 3.1 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 1.2bc 2.7 ± 1.2ac 2.1 ± 1.0ab <0.001
 49 Local/National/Traditions Identity 2.3 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.1 n.s.
 52 Media 3.2 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.1c 3.0 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.0a 0.001
 94 Social Media 3.2 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 1.2 3.7 ± 1.2bc 3.0 ± 1.0ac 2.2 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 95 Social Trends 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.2c 3.2 ± 1.0c 2.6 ± 0.9ab <0.001
 105 Tv Exposure 3.6 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.1bc 3.3 ± 1.1a 3.1 ± 1.4a 0.001
Cluster 5: Social Support and Modelling
 34 Group (Family Peers Partner) PA Behaviours 3.5 ± 0.6 3.1 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 0.9bc 3.6 ± 1.0a 3.7 ± 1.0a 0.010
 36 Group Health Habits 3.4 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 0.9 n.s.
 62 Parents/Relatives’ Concern About the Environment 2.5 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.1bc 2.0 ± 0.9a 2.4 ± 1.1a <0.001
 92 Social Expectation 2.9 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.1c 3.1 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 0.9a 0.032
 93 Social Inclusion 3.1 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1 n.s.
 99 Support of Family/Peers/Partner 3.7 ± 0.6 3.3 ± 0.9 4.2 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 0.9 n.s.
Cluster 6: Supportive Environment
 2 Access to Personal/Family/Peer Transport 3.2 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1c 3.5 ± 1.0b 0.028
 43 Involvement in Organized Sport 3.7 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 0.9bc 3.6 ± 1.0ac 3.2 ± 1.2ab <0.001
 55 Number of Household Cars/Car Ownership 2.7 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 1.0 n.s.
 74 Physician Advices 3.4 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 1.3 2.6 ± 1.0bc 3.3 ± 0.9ac 4.1 ± 0.8ab <0.001
 75 Private Environment (Home/Backyard Space) 3.1 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.0c 3.5 ± 1.1b 0.023
 101 Time Spent Outdoor/Playing Spaces 3.6 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.9 4.1 ± 0.9bc 3.1 ± 1.1a 3.2 ± 1.2a <0.001
  1. Means ± SD of Ratings (Likert scale: 1 = lowest value, 5 = highest value) and Differences (p < 0.05) between Population-Level Effect
  2. a = differences (p < 0.05) with respect to the youth population
  3. b = differences (p < 0.05) with respect to the adult population
  4. c = differences (p < 0.05) with respect to the older adult population
  5. n.s. = not significant