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Table 3 Multivariate comparison of factors associated with overweight vs normal weight, obese vs normal weight and overweight/obese vs normal weight, by site

From: Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study

Factor Rural Uganda Peri-urban Nigeria Tanzania South Africa
  AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Overweight vs Normal weight
Sex p = 0.35 *p < 0.0001 p = 0.20 p = 0.82 p = 0.84
 Male 1 1 1 1 1
 Female 1.40 (0.66, 2.98) 5.66 (2.69, 11.91) 0.46 (0.14, 1.45) 1.18 (0.35, 3.97) 0.87 (0.46, 1.67)
Age Group, Years p = 0.14 p = 0.48 *p = 0.002 p = 0.91 *p < 0.0001
 18–34 1 1 1 1 1
 35–44 1.18 (0.54, 2.59) 0.98 (0.38, 2.55) 4.16 (1.10, 15.7) 0.58 (0.17, 1.95) 4.49 (1.49, 13.57)
 > = 45 0.40 (0.14, 1.11) 1.54 (0.58, 4.08) 13.46 0.94 (0.26, 3.47) 7.90
(2.19, 82.17) (2.68, 23.28)
Marital Status p = 0.50 p = 0.08 p = 0.42 p = 0.61 p = 0.25
 Never married 1 1 1 1 1
 Married/living together 1.53 2.47 (1.00, 6.13) 0.49 (0.13, 1.82) 3.18 (0.73, 13.82) 1.36 (0.55, 3.32)
 Separated/divorced/widowed (0.12, 19.17) 2.81 (1.62, 4.88) Empty 1.68 (0.22, 12.77) 1.78 (0.58, 5.49)
2.82
(0.19, 43.78)
Obesity vs Normal weight
Sex *p = 0.002 *p < 0.0001 p = 0.34 * = 0.92 *p = 0.02
 Male 1 1 1 1 1
 Female 11.22 27.80 0.68 0.81 2.17
(2.27, 55.40) (7.13, 108.41) (0.21, 2.21) (0.26, 2.51) (1.19, 4.00)
Age Group, Years p = 0.07 p = 1.18 p = 0.09 p = 0.46 *p < 0.0001
 18–34 1 1 1 1 1
 35–44 0.88 (0.24, 3.21) 1.79 (0.45, 7.10) 0.93 (0.24, 3.65) 0.49 (0.16, 1.52) 3.65 (1.48, 9.00)
 > = 45 0.11 (0.01, 1.27) 3.77(0.85, 16.67) 5.19(0.85, 31.88) 0.59 (0.17, 2.06) 5.49(2.27, 13.29)
Marital Status p = 0.31 p = 0.07 p = 0.21 p = 0.41 p = 0.82
 Never married 1 1 1 1 1
 Married/living together 0.33 (0.02, 7.09) 2.22 (0.49, 9.96) 0.40 (0.12, 1.32) 3.36 (0.84, 13.40) 1.26 (0.58, 2.77)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 0.19 (0.01, 7.78) Omitted Empty 2.30 (0.34, 15.42) 0.96 (0.43, 2.70)
Overweight/Obese vs Normal weight
Sex *p = 0.04 *p < 0.0001 p = 0.19 p = 0.92 p = 0.11
 Male 1 1 1 1 1
 Female 1.96 (0.96, 3.97) 8.01(4.02, 15.96) 0.52 (0.19, 1.34) 0.98 (0.34, 2.69) 1.57 (0.89, 2.76)
Age Group, Years p = 0.10 p = 0.31 *p = 0.004 p = 0.70 *p < 0.0001
 18–34 1 1 1 1 1
 35–44 1.18 (0.56, 2.49) 1.07 (0.45, 2.52) 2.26 (0.75, 6.79) 0.49 (0.17, 1.44) 3.81 (1.67, 8.70)
 > = 45 0.38(0.13, 0.97) 1.79 (0.74, 4.34) 9.11(1.72, 48.16) 0.68 (0.21, 2.21) 6.22 (2.75, 14.07)
Marital Status p = 0.87 *p = 0.01 p = 0.18 p = 0.43 p = 0.53
 Never married 1 1 1 1 1
 Married/living together 0.90 (0.11, 7.61) 3.93 (1.60, 9.64) 0.43 (0.15, 1.24) 3.48 (1.00, 12.15) 1.27 (0.60, 2.67)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 1.33(0.13, 13.77) 3.87(1.10, 13.56) Empty 2.17 (0.39, 12.09) 1.23 (0.46, 3.26)
  1. * = significant at p < 0.05