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Table 3 Contribution of HIV/AIDS risk factors to gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence by country; decomposition analysis using latest available DHS, 2003 to 2011

From: What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys

  Ghanaa 2003 Uganda 2011 Congo Brazzavilleb 2009 Côte d’Ivoirea 2005 Ethiopiaa 2011 Rwanda 2010 Zambiaa 2007 Zimbabwe 2010/11 Mozambiquec 2009 Cameroon 2011 Guineaa 2005 Malawi 2010 Swazilanda 2006/07 Liberia 2007 D.R. Congod 2007
  Absolute contributione to gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence (p-value)
Gender Difference in HIV/AIDS Prevalence (%) 1.08 2.1 2.07 3.1 0.88 1.3 3.8 5.05 3.63 2.69 0.79 4.5 11.45 0.68 0.7
The composition effect hg 0.99 (0.000) 1.76 (0.000) −0.32 (0.478) 0.5 (0.514) 0.12 (0.698) 0.24 (0.524) 0.53 (0.480) 0.89 (0.188) 0.67 (0.583) 1.19 (0.001) −1.39 (0.05) 2.20 (0.00) 2.14 (0.015) −0.76 (0.314) −0.07 (0.852)
 Socio-economic and demographic characteristics 0.160 1.870 −0.320 0.750 0.160 −1.500 −2.44 0.830 0.660 0.720 0.040 1.920 0.440 0.030 0.110
  Residence 0.000 0.040 0.000 −0.020 0.020 0.040 0.38 0.080 −0.360 0.020 −0.400 −0.120 −0.040 0.000 −0.040
   Urban 0 (0.86) 0.02 (0.031) 0 (0.924) −0.01 (0.391) 0.01 (0.604) 0.02 (0.831) 0.18 (0.943) 0.04 (0.013) −0.18 (0.126) 0.01 (0.07) −0.2 (0.026) −0.06 (0.000) −0.02 (0.018) 0 (0.799) −0.02 (0.936)
   Rural 0 (0.86) 0.02 (0.031) 0 (0.924) −0.01 (0.391) 0.01 (0.604) 0.02 (0.831) 0.20 (0.943) 0.04 (0.013) −0.18 (0.126) 0.01 (0.07) −0.2 (0.026) −0.06 (0.000) −0.02 (0.018) 0 (0.799) −0.02 (0.936)
  Sex of household head 0.080 0.580 0.060 −0.040 0.040 −1.060 −0.78 0.300 2.020 0.340 0.140 0.740 −0.160 −0.020 −0.020
   Male 0.04 (0.06) 0.29 (0.000) 0.03 (0.539) −0.02 (0.538) 0.02 (0.654) −0.53 (0.833) −0.33 (0.943) 0.15 (0.168) 1.01 (0.122) 0.17 (0.007) 0.07 (0.065) 0.37 (0.004) −0.08 (0.115) −0.01 (0.474) −0.01 (0.931)
   Female 0.04 (0.06) 0.29 (0.000) 0.03 (0.539) −0.02 (0.538) 0.02 (0.654) −0.53 (0.833) −0.39 (0.943) 0.15 (0.168) 1.01 (0.122) 0.17 (0.007) 0.07 (0.065) 0.37 (0.004) −0.08 (0.115) −0.01 (0.474) −0.01 (0.931)
  Age group 0.040 0.110 −0.130 −0.120 −0.010 −0.020 0.14 0.490 0.370 −0.010 −0.080 −0.180 0.470 −0.010 0.140
   15–19 0.02 (0.059) 0.06 (0.001) −0.03 (0.176) −0.07 (0.297) −0.02 (0.619) −0.05 (0.825) 0.15 (0.943) 0.42 (0.000) 0.06 (0.316) −0.01 (0.054) 0.01 (0.138) 0.27 (0.006) 0.45 (0.002) 0 (0.988) −0.01 (0.934)
   20–29 0.01 (0.409) 0.06 (0.026) 0.01 (0.738) 0 (0.985) 0.01 (0.644) 0.01 (0.894) −0.11 (0.943) 0.01 (0.651) 0.2 (0.119) 0 (0.91) −0.04 (0.506) −0.28 (0.006) 0.01 (0.001) 0 (0.566) 0 (0.946)
   30–39 0.02 (0.007) −0.02 (0.000) −0.08 (0.183) −0.03 (0.288) 0.01 (0.616) −0.17 (0.828) 0.12 (0.943) 0.18 (0.000) 0.01 (0.215) 0.05 (0.009) 0.14 (0.089) 0.04 (0.000) 0.13 (0.002) −0.01 (0.73) −0.01 (0.934)
   40 + −0.01 (0.65) 0.01 (0.801) −0.03 (0.208) −0.02 (0.313) −0.01 (0.64) 0.19 (0.819) −0.02 (0.951) −0.12 (0.002) 0.1 (0.106) −0.05 (0.515) −0.19 (0.202) −0.21 (0.006) −0.12 (0.008) 0 (0.9) 0.16 (0.935)
  Education level −0.030 0.330 −0.040 0.030 −0.040 0.030 0.12 −0.100 −1.050 −0.210 −0.980 −0.360 −0.030 0.070 −0.090
   None −0.02 (0.14) 0.08 (0.182) −0.01 (0.763) −0.01 (0.931) −0.03 (0.599) 0.01 (0.863) 0.17 (0.943) −0.06 (0.029) −0.7 (0.308) −0.18 (0.148) −0.58 (0.071) −0.12 (0.333) 0.01 (0.103) 0.04 (0.577) 0.2 (0.935)
   Primary 0 (0.24) 0.02 (0.011) 0 (0.983) 0 (0.548) −0.01 (0.633) 0 (0.876) −0.20 (0.943) 0.12 (0.053) −0.17 (0.382) 0 (0.054) −0.02 (0.648) −0.01 (0.352) −0.01 (0.123) 0 (0.829) −0.17 (0.934)
   Secondary and above −0.01 (0.633) 0.23 (0.005) −0.03 (0.674) 0.04 (0.68) 0 (0.683) 0.02 (0.848) 0.15 (0.943) −0.16 (0.041) −0.18 (0.548) −0.03 (0.702) −0.38 (0.163) −0.23 (0.111) −0.03 (0.006) 0.03 (0.651) −0.12 (0.932)
  Standard of living −0.010 0.030 −0.050 0.030 0.000 0.130 0.28 −0.050 −0.060 −0.090 0.220 −0.070 0.010 −0.030 0.020
   1st Quintile 0 (0.816) 0 (0.061) −0.02 (0.257) 0 (0.365) 0 (0.641) 0.09 (0.828) 0.10 (0.943) 0.02 (0.186) −0.14 (0.144) −0.04 (0.003) 0.04 (0.119) −0.06 (0.253) 0.01 (0.354) −0.02 (0.571) 0.02 (0.934)
   2nd Quintile 0 (0.626) 0.02 (0.071) 0 (0.52) −0.01 (0.3) 0 (0.731) −0.01 (0.873) −0.01 (0.943) 0 (0.67) 0 (0.368) −0.01 (0.043) 0.01 (0.647) 0 (0.612) 0 (0.412) 0 (0.901) −0.02 (0.936)
   3rd Quintile 0 (0.814) 0.01 (0.009) 0 (0.868) −0.01 (0.626) 0 (0.725) 0 (0.973) 0.09 (0.943) 0 (0.64) 0.05 (0.121) 0.01 (0.045) 0 (0.677) 0.01 (0.69) 0 (0.687) 0 (0.88) 0.01 (0.934)
   4th Quintile 0 (0.082) 0 (0.735) −0.01 (0.3) 0 (0.406) 0 (0.642) 0.03 (0.834) 0.10 (0.943) −0.02 (0.472) 0 (0.157) −0.04 (0.02) 0.01 (0.371) −0.01 (0.104) 0 (0.356) −0.01 (0.541) 0 (0.997)
   5th Quintile −0.01 (0.144) 0 (0.41) −0.02 (0.255) 0.05 (0.336) 0 (0.678) 0.02 (0.846) 0 (0.952) −0.05 (0.04) 0.03 (0.701) −0.01 (0.051) 0.16 (0.062) −0.01 (0.657) 0 (0.345) 0 (0.886) 0.01 (0.936)
  Occupation type 0.040 −0.030 - 0.930 0.080 0.160 −1.00 −0.370 −2.200 0.110 0.360 −0.160 −0.070 0.150 0.360
   Unemployed 0 (0.706) −0.22 (0.031) - 0.45 (0.283) 0.04 (0.661) −0.11 (0.85) −0.11 (0.950) −0.02 (0.919) - −0.05 (0.781) −0.37 (0.019) −0.45 (0.124) −0.05 (0.344) −0.07 (0.619) 0.02 (0.936)
   Agricultural 0.03 (0.143) 0.14 (0.209) - −0.74 (0.265) 0.02 (0.796) 0.16 (0.822) −0.97 (0.943) −0.04 (0.838) −1.11 (0.213) −0.01 (0.907) 0.02 (0.012) 0.24 (0.001) −0.09 (0.077) 0.16 (0.45) 0.15 (0.935)
   Domestic - 0.02 (0.167) - - - 0 (0.872) - 0.03 (0.263) 0.02 (0.321) 0.01 (0.634) - 0.02 (0.039) - 0 (0.534) -
   Trade 0 (0.885) −0.01 (0.79) - 1.22 (0.291) 0.01 (0.705) −0.01 (0.832) −1.12 (0.940) −0.06 (0.487) −0.03 (0.571) 0.12 (0.198) 1.57 (0.006) 0.03 (0.763) 0.09 (0.039) −0.03 (0.585) -
   Manual labor 0.02 (0.069) 0.05 (0.233) - −0.33 (0.265) 0 (0.6) 0.15 (0.81) 0.15 (0.943) −0.32 (0.196) −1.26 (0.051) 0 (0.987) −0.78 (0.015) 0.1 (0.709) −0.12 (0.192) 0.08 (0.51) −0.03 (0.925)
   Office/service 0.01 (0.276) 0.02 (0.57) - 0.02 (0.287) 0 (0.669) −0.05 (0.835) 0.08 (0.943) 0.02 (0.562) 0.28 (0.162) −0.04 (0.104) 0.34 (0.008) −0.18 (0.006) 0.01 (0.808) 0.01 (0.703) 0.01 (0.955)
   Professional/manager −0.02 (0.221) −0.03 (0.665) - 0.31 (0.258) 0.01 (0.61) 0.02 (0.844) −0.03 (0.943) 0.02 (0.57) −0.1 (0.567) 0.08 (0.414) −0.42 (0.023) 0.08 (0.212) 0.09 (0.022) 0 (0.974) 0.21 (0.935)
  Marital status 0.040 0.810 −0.160 −0.060 0.070 −0.780 −1.58 0.480 1.940 0.560 0.780 2.070 0.260 −0.130 −0.260
   Never married 0.03 (0.151) 0.4 (0.000) −0.08 (0.438) 0.03 (0.732) 0.04 (0.617) −0.26 (0.829) −0.90 (0.943) 0.38 (0.154) 0.75 (0.219) 0.54 (0.002) 0.65 (0.163) 1.36 (0.000) 0.33 (0.011) −0.09 (0.471) −0.21 (0.934)
   Married 0 (0.986) −0.05 (0.013) −0.12 (0.18) −0.11 (0.324) 0 (0.762) −0.03 (0.832) 0.17 (0.943) −0.6 (0.002) 0.04 (0.423) −0.16 (0.131) 0.11 (0.679) −0.07 (0.643) −0.23 (0.008) −0.02 (0.585) 0.02 (0.936)
   Separated/divorced/widowed 0.01 (0.065) 0.46 (0.000) 0.04 (0.222) 0.02 (0.324) 0.03 (0.621) −0.49 (0.829) −0.85 (0.943) 0.7 (0.000) 1.15 (0.135) 0.18 (0.000) 0.02 (0.061) 0.78 (0.000) 0.16 (0.002) −0.02 (0.461) −0.07 (0.934)
 Sexual behavior factorsf 0.800 −0.080 −0.060 −0.340 0.010 2.190 2.90 −0.170 −0.010 0.490 −1.240 0.120 1.700 −0.770 −0.140
  Sexual behavior risk 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.120 0.00 0.000 0.100 0.000 −0.400 0.020 −0.040 −0.020 0.120
   No 0 (0.406) 0 (0.255) 0 (0.599) 0 (0.876) 0 (0.612) 0.06 (0.825) 0.00 (0.977) 0 (0.838) 0.05 (0.448) 0 (0.001) −0.2 (0.192) 0.01 (0.93) −0.02 (0.163) −0.01 (0.487) 0.06 (0.933)
   Yes 0 (0.406) 0 (0.255) 0 (0.599) 0 (0.876) 0 (0.612) 0.06 (0.825) 0.00 (0.977) 0 (0.838) 0.05 (0.448) 0 (0.001) −0.2 (0.192) 0.01 (0.93) −0.02 (0.163) −0.01 (0.487) 0.06 (0.933)
  Premarital sex −0.040 −0.360 0.040 −0.240 −0.020 1.440 2.85 −1.320 −0.040 −0.240 −1.320 −0.460 0.160 0.040 0.240
   No −0.02 (0.022) −0.18 (0.007) 0.02 (0.543) −0.12 (0.29) −0.01 (0.606) 0.72 (0.821) 1.43 (0.943) −0.66 (0.000) −0.02 (0.948) −0.12 (0.345) −0.66 (0.042) −0.23 (0.345) 0.08 (0.01) 0.02 (0.591) 0.12 (0.936)
   Yes −0.02 (0.022) −0.18 (0.007) 0.02 (0.543) −0.12 (0.29) −0.01 (0.606) 0.72 (0.821) 1.42 (0.943) −0.66 (0.000) −0.02 (0.948) −0.12 (0.345) −0.66 (0.042) −0.23 (0.345) 0.08 (0.01) 0.02 (0.591) 0.12 (0.936)
  Multiple sex partners 0.020 −0.360 −0.020 0.000 −0.020 0.200 −0.06 −0.200 −0.440 0.200 −0.160 −0.280 −0.080 0.100 −0.540
   No 0.01 (0.669) −0.18 (0.003) −0.01 (0.87) 0 (0.88) −0.01 (0.607) 0.1 (0.825) 0.03 (0.942) −0.1 (0.301) −0.22 (0.437) 0.1 (0.385) −0.08 (0.743) −0.14 (0.403) −0.04 (0.01) 0.05 (0.534) −0.27 (0.933)
   Yes 0.01 (0.669) −0.18 (0.003) −0.01 (0.87) 0 (0.88) −0.01 (0.607) 0.1 (0.825) 0.03 (0.942) −0.1 (0.301) −0.22 (0.437) 0.1 (0.385) −0.08 (0.743) −0.14 (0.403) −0.04 (0.01) 0.05 (0.534) −0.27 (0.933)
  Age at first sex 0.820 0.640 −0.080 −0.100 0.050 0.430 −0.01 1.350 0.370 0.530 0.640 0.840 1.660 −0.890 0.040
   Never had sex 0.62 (0.000) 0.13 (0.118) −0.03 (0.336) 0.08 (0.317) 0.03 (0.629) 0.4 (0.829) −0.05 (0.943) 0.73 (0.000) 0.28 (0.136) 0.17 (0.052) 0.12 (0.426) 0.09 (0.069) 1.24 (0.004) −0.74 (0.398) 0.02 (0.935)
    < 16 years 0.23 (0.000) 0.27 (0.002) −0.01 (0.633) −0.02 (0.785) 0.03 (0.678) 0.18 (0.83) −0.08 (0.943) 0.27 (0.000) 0.5 (0.16) 0.36 (0.001) 0.46 (0.341) 0.07 (0.002) 0.23 (0.015) −0.56 (0.395) 0.06 (0.934)
   16–17 0.19 (0.000) 0.07 (0.089) −0.03 (0.433) 0.03 (0.48) 0 (0.704) −0.16 (0.83) −0.22 (0.944) 0.31 (0.003) 0.09 (0.128) 0.07 (0.097) 0.06 (0.581) 0.41 (0.038) 0.27 (0.009) −0.14 (0.393) 0.03 (0.936)
   18–19 0.06 (0.000) −0.05 (0.028) 0.02 (0.293) −0.07 (0.308) 0 (0.628) −0.08 (0.83) 0.02 (0.943) 0.07 (0.017) −0.34 (0.142) 0 (0.945) −0.14 (0.294) 0.03 (0.307) 0.07 (0.015) 0.36 (0.403) 0 (0.944)
   20 + −0.28 (0.000) 0.22 (0.058) −0.03 (0.589) −0.12 (0.285) −0.01 (0.776) 0.09 (0.83) 0.32 (0.943) −0.03 (0.823) −0.16 (0.521) −0.07 (0.665) 0.14 (0.79) 0.24 (0.317) −0.15 (0.023) 0.19 (0.413) −0.07 (0.934)
 HIV⁄AIDS awareness 0.020 −0.020 0.050 0.050 −0.020 −0.450 0.08 0.270 0.000 −0.070 −0.170 0.170 −0.010 0.000 −0.050
   Low 0.01 (0.36) −0.01 (0.004) 0.02 (0.736) 0.03 (0.462) −0.01 (0.642) −0.15 (0.83) 0.04 (0.942) 0.12 (0.029) −0.02 (0.474) −0.09 (0.016) −0.16 (0.245) 0.11 (0.003) 0 (0.809) 0 (0.846) −0.01 (0.935)
   Average 0 (0.178) 0 (0.809) 0 (0.85) 0 (0.917) 0 (0.715) −0.02 (0.829) 0.00 (0.951) −0.02 (0.564) 0 (0.241) 0.02 (0.469) 0 (0.263) 0.03 (0.06) 0 (0.937) 0 (0.578) −0.03 (0.934)
   High 0.01 (0.095) −0.01 (0.002) 0.03 (0.621) 0.02 (0.475) −0.01 (0.624) −0.28 (0.828) 0.04 (0.943) 0.17 (0.021) 0.02 (0.423) 0 (0.001) −0.01 (0.906) 0.03 (0.077) −0.01 (0.745) 0 (0.591) −0.01 (0.934)
The response effect i 0.09 (0.811) 0.34 (0.476) 2.39 (0.000) 2.6 (0.013) 0.76 (0.039) 1.06 (0.028) 3.27 (0.002) 4.16 (0.000) 2.96 (0.051) 1.5 (0.002) 2.18 (0.006) 2.3 (0.006) 9.31 (0.000) 1.44 (0.094) 0.77 (0.106)
 Socio-economic and demographic characteristics 0.020 −3.510 −0.360 5.470 0.090 0.390 −0.10 3.000 0.350 −0.930 −7.810 −0.020 3.620 6.220 −0.040
  Residence 0.000 −0.100 −0.120 0.110 −0.120 0.060 −0.20 −0.180 0.260 0.010 −0.280 0.030 −0.060 −0.170 −0.020
   Urban 0 (0.978) 0.03 (0.498) −0.28 (0.432) −0.84 (0.086) 0.04 (0.433) −0.02 (0.708) 0.63 (0.077) 0.13 (0.599) −0.22 (0.437) 0.06 (0.702) 0.42 (0.103) −0.01 (0.909) 0.04 (0.825) 0.34 (0.453) 0.06 (0.646)
   Rural 0 (0.978) −0.13 (0.498) 0.16 (0.432) 0.95 (0.086) −0.16 (0.433) 0.08 (0.708) −0.83 (0.077) −0.31 (0.599) 0.48 (0.437) −0.05 (0.702) −0.7 (0.103) 0.04 (0.909) −0.1 (0.825) −0.51 (0.453) −0.08 (0.646)
  Sex of household head 0.010 −0.060 −0.070 −0.440 −0.360 −0.120 −0.65 −0.080 −1.140 −0.320 0.450 −0.320 0.070 1.070 0.000
   Male 0.01 (0.815) −0.08 (0.554) −0.08 (0.909) −0.51 (0.553) −0.42 (0.071) −0.15 (0.599) −0.75 (0.380) −0.14 (0.746) −1.28 (0.183) −0.38 (0.19) 0.5 (0.254) −0.38 (0.464) 0.16 (0.697) 1.41 (0.374) 0 (0.984)
   Female 0 (0.815) 0.02 (0.554) 0.01 (0.909) 0.07 (0.553) 0.06 (0.071) 0.03 (0.599) 0.09 (0.380) 0.06 (0.746) 0.14 (0.183) 0.06 (0.19) −0.05 (0.254) 0.06 (0.464) −0.09 (0.697) −0.34 (0.374) 0 (0.984)
  Age group 0.000 0.010 0.320 0.100 0.010 0.080 0.31 0.800 −0.950 0.000 −0.040 0.180 2.830 0.170 0.090
   15–19 0 (0.871) 0.12 (0.417) −0.14 (0.655) 0.17 (0.703) 0.08 (0.483) 0.2 (0.303) −0.07 (0.877) −0.49 (0.377) 0.64 (0.117) 0.44 (0.015) −0.23 (0.371) 0.67 (0.046) 3.59 (0.000) −0.63 (0.418) −0.29 (0.063)
   20–29 −0.01 (0.813) 0.25 (0.355) 0.39 (0.159) 0.02 (0.963) 0.05 (0.619) 0.21 (0.249) 0.88 (0.021) 1.72 (0.000) 1.02 (0.092) 0.06 (0.694) −0.01 (0.952) 0.1 (0.679) 1.32 (0.008) 0.04 (0.91) 0.11 (0.193)
   30–39 0 (0.821) −0.1 (0.372) 0.34 (0.198) 0.13 (0.714) −0.03 (0.6) −0.04 (0.61) 0.27 (0.400) 0.32 (0.238) −1.02 (0.031) −0.22 (0.018) 0.35 (0.088) −0.15 (0.348) −0.97 (0.000) 0.37 (0.469) 0.01 (0.904)
   40 + 0.01 (0.814) −0.26 (0.342) −0.27 (0.045) −0.22 (0.272) −0.09 (0.214) −0.29 (0.017) −0.77 (0.009) −0.75 (0.000) −1.59 (0.008) −0.28 (0.016) −0.15 (0.557) −0.44 (0.004) −1.11 (0.000) 0.39 (0.417) 0.26 (0.102)
  Education level 0.000 −0.050 −0.380 −0.220 −0.040 0.000 −0.31 1.170 0.040 −0.390 −0.480 0.010 −0.690 0.130 0.180
   None 0 (0.814) 0.01 (0.533) 0.01 (0.613) 0.27 (0.454) −0.1 (0.29) −0.03 (0.55) 0.03 (0.717) −0.02 (0.424) −0.25 (0.346) 0.08 (0.229) −0.87 (0.034) −0.04 (0.449) 0.08 (0.348) −0.12 (0.574) −0.05 (0.187)
   Primary 0 (0.816) 0.04 (0.705) −0.05 (0.759) 0.28 (0.293) 0.02 (0.823) −0.03 (0.884) 0.24 (0.620) 0.29 (0.456) −0.16 (0.855) 0 (0.974) 0.16 (0.227) −0.26 (0.419) 0.26 (0.365) 0.19 (0.58) 0.2 (0.145)
   Secondary and above 0 (0.899) −0.1 (0.453) −0.34 (0.581) −0.77 (0.119) 0.04 (0.344) 0.06 (0.519) −0.58 (0.318) 0.9 (0.46) 0.45 (0.278) −0.47 (0.084) 0.23 (0.262) 0.31 (0.203) −1.03 (0.041) 0.06 (0.886) 0.03 (0.849)
  Standard of living 0.000 0.020 0.460 0.510 0.010 −0.080 0.130 0.060 −0.310 0.000 −0.140 0.020 −0.150 0.130 −0.360
   1st Quintile 0 (0.985) 0.01 (0.828) −0.15 (0.115) −0.52 (0.082) −0.08 (0.483) −0.15 (0.178) 0.36 (0.281) −0.12 (0.585) −0.27 (0.608) −0.03 (0.789) 0.16 (0.37) 0.17 (0.252) −0.41 (0.091) −0.16 (0.673) −0.62 (0.086)
   2nd Quintile 0 (0.822) −0.07 (0.4) −0.09 (0.383) −0.34 (0.141) 0.09 (0.443) −0.1 (0.247) −0.06 (0.742) 0.04 (0.848) −0.69 (0.098) −0.08 (0.331) 0.01 (0.941) −0.02 (0.85) −0.12 (0.511) −0.04 (0.864) −0.62 (0.065)
   3rd Quintile 0 (0.818) 0.03 (0.539) 0 (0.974) 0.16 (0.594) 0 (0.952) −0.03 (0.743) −0.17 (0.396) 0.27 (0.261) 0.47 (0.135) 0.13 (0.094) 0.13 (0.388) −0.06 (0.665) −0.01 (0.98) −0.02 (0.899) −0.68 (0.057)
   4th Quintile 0.000 (0.828) 0.02 (0.634) 0.27 (0.218) 0.000 (0.999) −0.01 (0.766) 0.11 (0.165) −0.01 (0.946) 0.14 (0.571) 0.18 (0.411) 0.07 (0.524) −0.02 (0.839) −0.09 (0.427) −0.28 (0.223) 0.44 (0.425) 0.72 (0.05)
   5th Quintile 0.000 (0.842) 0.03 (0.616) 0.43 (0.133) 1.21 (0.026) 0.01 (0.762) 0.09 (0.289) 0.01 (0.980) −0.27 (0.277) 0 (0.998) −0.09 (0.39) −0.42 (0.107) 0.02 (0.926) 0.67 (0.011) −0.09 (0.635) 0.84 (0.055)
  Occupation type 0.010 −3.280   4.970 0.450 0.260 0.010 0.270 2.470 0.010 −0.430 −0.020 0.000 5.260 0.150
   Unemployed 0 (0.849) −0.61 (0.349) - 1.79 (0.035) 0.06 (0.183) −0.04 (0.518) 0.04 (0.901) −0.35 (0.368) - −0.08 (0.571) 0.27 (0.319) −0.07 (0.633) −0.04 (0.937) 1.23 (0.311) −0.04 (0.71)
   Agricultural 0.01 (0.814) −0.72 (0.346) - 2.11 (0.037) 0.44 (0.131) 0.31 (0.339) −0.23 (0.666) 0.02 (0.944) 1.59 (0.148) −0.02 (0.898) −0.29 (0.403) −0.21 (0.554) 0.07 (0.628) 3.16 (0.365) 0.19 (0.202)
   Domestic - 0.09 (0.346) - - - 0.02 (0.586) - −0.06 (0.176) −0.06 (0.368) −0.05 (0.143) - 0 (0.823) - −0.05 (0.342) -
   Trade 0 (0.818) −0.26 (0.348) - 0.47 (0.052) −0.03 (0.313) 0.08 (0.077) 0.24 (0.129) 0.14 (0.227) 0.61 (0.061) 0.05 (0.427) −0.19 (0.017) 0.23 (0.042) 0.07 (0.403) 0.24 (0.439) -
   Manual labor 0 (0.813) −1.36 (0.346) - 0 (0.999) 0.03 (0.368) −0.07 (0.57) 0.04 (0.869) 0.38 (0.309) 0.53 (0.315) 0.03 (0.861) −0.15 (0.204) 0.06 (0.76) 0.04 (0.872) 0.14 (0.527) 0.06 (0.47)
   Office/service 0 (0.815) −0.21 (0.352) - 1 (0.025) −0.01 (0.253) −0.04 (0.092) −0.12 (0.135) −0.08 (0.228) −0.19 (0.294) 0.12 (0.029) 0.05 (0.003) 0.02 (0.736) 0.01 (0.966) 0.34 (0.38) −0.06 (0.122)
   Professional/manager 0 (0.819) −0.21 (0.346) - −0.4 (0.015) −0.04 (0.126) 0 (0.851) 0.04 (0.740) 0.22 (0.059) −0.01 (0.953) −0.04 (0.435) −0.12 (0.068) −0.05 (0.32) −0.15 (0.308) 0.2 (0.43) 0 (0.946)
  Marital status 0.000 −0.050 −0.570 0.440 0.140 0.190 0.630 0.960 −0.020 −0.240 −6.890 0.080 1.620 −0.370 −0.080
   Never married 0 (0.825) 0.13 (0.465) 0.25 (0.473) 0.5 (0.532) 0.02 (0.868) 0.56 (0.095) 2.18 (0.002) 3.79 (0.000) 0.25 (0.569) 0.04 (0.851) −2.7 (0.004) 0.73 (0.175) 2.6 (0.001) 1.17 (0.389) −0.01 (0.954)
   Married 0 (0.821) −0.17 (0.424) −0.92 (0.015) 0 (0.995) 0.13 (0.401) −0.36 (0.162) −1.39 (0.036) −2.68 (0.000) −0.2 (0.885) −0.3 (0.168) −4.76 (0.001) −0.62 (0.216) −0.96 (0.001) −1.51 (0.395) −0.08 (0.614)
   Separated/divorced/widowed 0 (0.885) −0.01 (0.717) 0.1 (0.091) −0.06 (0.456) −0.01 (0.272) −0.01 (0.272) −0.17 (0.009) −0.15 (0.004) −0.07 (0.46) 0.02 (0.318) 0.57 (0.001) −0.03 (0.33) −0.02 (0.631) −0.03 (0.679) 0.01 (0.674)
 Sexual behavioral factorsf 0.030 0.200 0.200 −0.640 0.440 −0.490 1.47 1.320 0.960 −0.650 0.330 −0.120 0.490 −2.550 −0.190
  Sexual behavior risk 0.020 0.180 −0.020 −0.850 0.700 −0.120 −0.320 1.880 −0.240 −0.520 −0.120 −0.990 1.160 0.000 −0.250
   No 0.02 (0.813) 0.21 (0.436) 0.08 (0.65) −1.12 (0.183) 0.72 (0.066) −0.12 (0.858) −0.36 (0.703) 1.98 (0.081) −0.3 (0.743) −0.64 (0.019) −0.15 (0.772) −1.13 (0.1) 1.4 (0.015) 0 (0.99) −0.36 (0.18)
   Yes 0 (0.813) −0.03 (0.436) −0.1 (0.65) 0.27 (0.183) −0.02 (0.066) 0 (0.858) 0.04 (0.703) −0.1 (0.081) 0.06 (0.743) 0.12 (0.019) 0.03 (0.772) 0.14 (0.1) −0.24 (0.015) 0 (0.99) 0.11 (0.18)
  Premarital sex 0.000 0.070 0.290 −0.130 0.010 0.080 −0.010 0.000 −0.590 −0.210 0.090 −0.010 −0.010 −0.170 −0.080
   No 0.000 (0.822) −0.08 (0.419) −0.06 (0.424) 0.06 (0.801) 0.01 (0.899) 0.27 (0.086) 0.01 (0.976) −0.03 (0.927) 0.58 (0.112) 0.2 (0.08) −0.07 (0.615) 0.000 (0.979) 0.01 (0.971) 0.06 (0.712) 0.05 (0.412)
   Yes 0.000 (0.822) 0.15 (0.419) 0.35 (0.424) −0.19 (0.801) 0 (0.899) −0.19 (0.086) −0.02 (0.976) 0.03 (0.927) −1.17 (0.112) −0.41 (0.08) 0.16 (0.615) −0.01 (0.979) −0.02 (0.971) −0.23 (0.712) −0.13 (0.412)
  Multiple sex partners −0.010 −0.080 −0.070 0.020 −0.440 0.080 0.600 0.170 −0.040 0.050 0.140 0.510 0.130 0.160 0.200
   No −0.01 (0.81) −0.12 (0.53) 0.46 (0.022) 0.62 (0.136) −0.46 (0.116) 0.09 (0.756) 0.96 (0.104) 0.24 (0.69) −0.07 (0.935) 0.17 (0.308) 0.3 (0.431) 0.68 (0.15) 0.27 (0.551) 0.73 (0.422) 0.35 (0.133)
   Yes 0 (0.81) 0.04 (0.53) −0.53 (0.022) −0.6 (0.136) 0.02 (0.116) −0.01 (0.756) −0.36 (0.104) −0.07 (0.69) 0.03 (0.935) −0.12 (0.308) −0.16 (0.431) −0.17 (0.15) −0.14 (0.551) −0.57 (0.422) −0.15 (0.133)
  Age at first sex 0.020 0.030 0.000 0.320 0.170 −0.530 1.200 −0.730 1.830 0.030 0.220 0.370 −0.790 −2.540 −0.060
   Never had sex 0.09 (0.814) −0.14 (0.412) −0.03 (0.854) −0.57 (0.327) 0.16 (0.307) −0.87 (0.068) −1.17 (0.026) −2.91 (0.001) −0.31 (0.371) −0.21 (0.45) −0.41 (0.161) −0.58 (0.169) −1.49 (0.203) 2.39 (0.347) 0.09 (0.398)
    < 16 years −0.01 (0.814) 0.07 (0.387) 0.31 (0.399) −0.15 (0.704) −0.02 (0.251) 0.15 (0.101) 0.76 (0.117) 0.28 (0.029) 0.89 (0.262) 0.1 (0.342) 0.1 (0.507) 0.48 (0.126) 0.27 (0.105) −0.88 (0.347) −0.03 (0.785)
   16–17 −0.01 (0.815) 0.05 (0.479) −0.31 (0.138) 0.17 (0.592) −0.04 (0.142) 0.07 (0.227) 0.58 (0.073) 0.35 (0.053) 0.64 (0.358) 0.19 (0.148) 0.16 (0.343) 0.14 (0.319) −0.19 (0.324) −1.53 (0.344) −0.1 (0.222)
   18–19 −0.02 (0.814) 0.09 (0.404) −0.14 (0.333) 0.67 (0.119) 0.03 (0.565) 0.14 (0.111) 0.35 (0.323) 0.53 (0.03) 0.34 (0.58) −0.02 (0.89) 0.3 (0.146) 0.12 (0.464) 0.55 (0.043) −1.87 (0.351) 0.01 (0.81)
   20 + −0.03 (0.815) −0.04 (0.586) 0.17 (0.115) 0.2 (0.512) 0.04 (0.743) −0.02 (0.863) 0.68 (0.060) 1.02 (0.014) 0.27 (0.663) −0.03 (0.778) 0.07 (0.807) 0.21 (0.361) 0.07 (0.814) −0.65 (0.389) −0.03 (0.646)
 HIV⁄AIDS awareness 0.010 −0.030 0.070 0.570 0.010 −0.020 0.130 0.120 0.130 −0.010 0.040 0.030 −0.040 −0.030 0.090
   Low 0.000 (0.815) 0.000 (0.961) −0.07 (0.556) −0.45 (0.048) −0.05 (0.408) −0.07 (0.551) 0.24 (0.429) −0.19 (0.445) 0.92 (0.07) −0.34 (0.014) −0.15 (0.346) 0.01 (0.94) 0.01 (0.966) 0.26 (0.477) 0.96 (0.118)
   Average 0 (0.819) −0.07 (0.449) 0.02 (0.923) 1.34 (0.009) 0.09 (0.229) −0.01 (0.893) 0.06 (0.816) 0 (0.997) −0.76 (0.064) −0.11 (0.347) 0.43 (0.085) 0.15 (0.375) −0.1 (0.732) −0.52 (0.373) 0.67 (0.049)
   High 0.01 (0.814) 0.04 (0.466) 0.12 (0.58) −0.32 (0.388) −0.03 (0.716) 0.06 (0.437) −0.18 (0.314) 0.31 (0.329) −0.03 (0.931) 0.44 (0.004) −0.24 (0.242) −0.13 (0.351) 0.05 (0.794) 0.23 (0.509) −1.54 (0.061)
 Constant 0.04 (0.812) 3.68 (0.357) 2.48 (0.018) −2.78 (0.309) 0.21 (0.541) 1.19 (0.183) 1.77 (0.242) −0.3 (0.885) 1.52 (0.585) 3.09 (0.000) 9.61 (0.001) 2.4 (0.034) 5.22 (0.000) −2.19 (0.477) 0.92 (0.126)
  1. P-values are reported in parenthesis; They are testing variables’ contribution to gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in each country
  2. aDomestic category not collected
  3. bOccupation type variable not collected
  4. cUnemployed category not collected
  5. dTrade and domestic category not collected
  6. eThe overall absolute contribution of a given variable is equal to the sum of absolute contribution of its categories; the absolute contribution of socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS is determined by summing the absolute contributions of all variables included in each category. The absolute contribution of a given variable to a given component was calculated as follow: the absolute difference of HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men explained by this component multiplied by the relative contribution (in percentage) of this variable to this absolute difference in HIV/AIDS prevalence
  7. fSexual behavioural factors are not highly correlated
  8. gSeveral values of dichotomous variables for the “difference due to distribution” component became identical after rounding the estimated values
  9. hRepresent the contribution to gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence due to gender differences in the distributions of observable HIV/AIDS risk factors between women and men
  10. iReflect the contribution to gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS due to gender differences in the effects of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, as well as unmeasured factors not included in the model