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Table 4 Interaction effect of education and each lifestyle behavior on obesity in women (N = 9333): Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012

From: Modifying effects of education on the association between lifestyle behaviors and the risk of obesity: evidence from South Korea

Characteristics Junior high school or less Senior high school College or higher p for interaction Education trend for each group
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) p for trend
Smoking status        <.001    
 Non-smoking 1.00   0.81 (0.67–0.97) 0.49 (0.39–0.62)   0.72 (0.64–0.80) <.001
 Smoking 0.68 (0.47–0.98) 1.14 (0.75–1.73) 0.67 (0.35–1.29)   0.79 (0.66–0.94) .01
Risk from drinking alcohol        <.001    
 No or low risk 1.00   0.91 (0.75–1.11) 0.59 (0.47–0.76)   0.71 (0.64–0.80) <.001
 Medium or higher risk 1.37 (1.09–1.71) 0.99 (0.77–1.28) 0.50 (0.36–0.70)   0.72 (0.64–0.81) <.001
Physical exercise        <.001    
 Inactive 1.00   0.86 (0.71–1.04) 0.48 (0.38–0.60)   0.70 (0.63–0.78) <.001
 Active 1.12 (0.89–1.41) 0.98 (0.75–1.28) 0.82 (0.55–1.22)   0.80 (0.70–0.91) <.01
Sleep duration        <.001    
 Long 1.00   0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.44 (0.34–0.58)   0.69 (0.62–0.77) <.001
 Short 1.00 (0.86–1.15) 0.92 (0.74–1.15) 0.63 (0.48–0.82)   0.75 (0.67–0.84) <.001
Energy intake        <.001    
 Not under- reported 1.00   0.83 (0.69–1.01) 0.51 (0.40–0.65)   0.65 (0.58–0.73) <.001
 Under- reported 2.25 (1.79–2.82) 2.18 (1.63–2.90) 1.23 (0.88–1.71)   0.99 (0.87–1.12) .85
Stress        <.001    
 Not stressful 1.00   0.81 (0.67–0.98) 0.50 (0.39–0.64)   0.71 (0.63–0.79) <.001
 Stressful 0.96 (0.80–1.15) 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 0.54 (0.40–0.73)   0.74 (0.65–0.83) <.001
  1. All analyses were conducted considering the complex survey design
  2. P value was obtained by the Wald test
  3. All estimates for all the interaction terms between education each health behavior were obtained from the multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, marital status, residential area, employment status, equivalized household income, self-rated health, chronic disease, survey year, and the other lifestyle behaviors
  4. N number, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Obesity body mass index ≥25