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Table 2 Obesity prevalence rate (%) by educational level and sex: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012

From: Modifying effects of education on the association between lifestyle behaviors and the risk of obesity: evidence from South Korea

Characteristics Men (N = 6937) Women (N = 9333)
Junior high school or less Senior high school College or more p Junior high school or less Senior high school College or more p
Rate (SE) Rate (SE) Rate (SE)   Rate (SE) Rate (SE) Rate (SE)  
All participants 31.9 (1.3) 38.0 (1.3) 40.5 (1.3) <.001 39.7 (1.0) 30.0 (1.2) 17.1 (1.0) <.001
Smoking status        <.001*        <.001*
 Non-smoking 34.3 (1.6) 36.4 (1.8) 40.5 (1.7) .04 40.3 (1.0) 29.5 (1.2) 16.9 (1.0) <.001
 Smoking 28.4 (2.1) 36.6 (1.8) 40.5 (2.0) <.001 30.5 (3.7) 34.6 (4.3) 21.4 (5.2) .15
Risk from drinking alcohol        <.001*        <.001*
 No or low risk 29.7 (1.6) 31.3 (1.7) 35.5 (1.9) .05 38.6 (1.1) 29.9 (1.4) 18.1 (1.2) <.001
 Medium or higher risk 35.2 (2.3) 42.2 (1.7) 43.7 (1.7) .02 44.7 (2.5) 30.1 (2.1) 15.4 (1.6) <.001
Physical exercise        <.001*        <.001*
 Active 34.1 (2.8) 38.6 (2.8) 39.5 (2.6) .41 41.6 (2.4) 32.6 (2.5) 25.0 (3.4) <.001
 Inactive 31.4 (1.5) 37.8 (1.5) 40.8 (1.4) <.001 39.3 (1.1) 29.4 (1.3) 15.8 (1.0) <.001
Sleep duration        <.001*        <.001*
 Long 31.2 (1.7) 38.0 (1.5) 39.0 (1.7) .01 39.6 (1.3) 28.5 (1.4) 15.2 (1.2) <.001
 Short 32.8 (2.0) 37.9 (2.0) 42.6 (1.8) <.01 39.8 (1.4) 32.4 (1.8) 21.1 (1.8) <.001
Energy intake        <.001*        <.001*
 Not under-reported 26.8 (1.5) 33.7 (1.5) 37.2 (1.5) <.001 36.1 (1.1) 26.0 (1.2) 14.8 (1.0) <.001
 Under-reported 45.2 (2.7) 49.3 (2.6) 49.6 (2.4) .48 56.9 (2.5) 46.6 (2.9) 29.6 (3.0) <.001
Stress        <.001*        <.001*
 Not stressful 31.7 (1.4) 36.7 (1.4) 39.9 (1.6) <.001 39.1 (1.2) 28.5 (1.3) 16.7 (1.2) <.001
 Stressful 32.6 (3.2) 42.1 (2.7) 41.9 (2.2) .06 41.1 (1.8) 33.5 (2.2) 18.0 (1.8) <.001
  1. All analyses were conducted considering the complex survey design
  2. P-values were obtained by the χ2 test
  3. N number, SE standard error, Obesity body mass index ≥25
  4. *P-values were obtained by the Wald test for the interaction terms between education and each lifestyle behavior fitted in the logistic regression models without any potential confounders