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Table 1 Distribution (%) of study sample characteristics according to educational level and sex: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012

From: Modifying effects of education on the association between lifestyle behaviors and the risk of obesity: evidence from South Korea

Characteristics Men (N = 6937)   Women (N = 9333)  
Junior high school or less Senior high school College or higher p Junior high school or less Senior high school College or higher p
Age, year     <.001     <.001
 25–44 3.3 36.5 57.0   1.9 47.1 75.0  
 45–54 15.4 24.6 22.1   17.1 32.8 17.9  
 55–64 29.5 20.5 10.9   30.2 13.4 5.4  
 65 or over 51.8 18.4 10.0   50.8 6.7 1.8  
Non-married 10.3 17.0 19.4 <.001 35.2 15.6 23.8 <.001
Rural 36.7 20.2 11.1 <.001 32.9 14.1 8.9 <.001
Employed 64.9 78.0 84.0 <.001 43.5 48.8 51.8 <.001
Median or higher income 27.8 53.2 71.3 <.001 28.9 56.9 73.7 <.001
Smoking status     <.001     <.001
 Non-smoking 63.8 54.9 59.0   95.4 93.0 96.1  
 Smoking 36.2 45.1 41.0   4.6 7.0 3.9  
Risk from drinking alcohol     <.001     <.001
 No or low 68.8 46.5 43.3   85.6 67.5 67.6  
 Medium or higher 31.2 53.5 56.8   14.4 32.5 32.4  
Physical exercise     <.01     <.01
 Active 17.6 23.4 20.8   16.0 18.6 14.1  
 Inactive 82.4 76.6 79.3   84.0 81.4 85.9  
Sleep duration     .50     <.001
 Long 57.8 59.3 57.0   48.2 61.6 67.2  
 Short 42.2 40.7 43.0   51.8 38.4 32.8  
Energy intake     .86     .01
 Not under-reported 72.7 74.2 75.4   84.0 82.9 84.8  
 Under-reported 27.3 25.8 24.6   16.1 17.1 15.2  
Stress     <.001     .01
 Not stressful 82.6 78.3 71.1   72.5 73.0 69.4  
 Stressful 17.4 21.7 28.9   27.6 27.0 30.6  
Self-rated health, poor 26.9 12.7 10.6 <.001 35.1 15.1 11.3 <.001
Chronic disease 42.4 28.0 18.1 <.001 50.1 16.5 5.4 <.001
Survey year     .66     .54
 2010 35.9 34.8 35.8   33.7 33.7 34.4  
 2011 34.2 34.0 33.7   34.5 34.4 33.7  
 2012 30.0 31.3 30.6   31.8 31.9 31.9  
All participants 31.0 32.7 36.3   44.8 29.5 25.7  
  1. For the sake of brevity, the descriptive statistics were shown as % and unweighted
  2. P-values were obtained by the χ2 test considering the complex survey design
  3. N number, Obesity body mass index ≥25