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Table 1 Participant demographics at study baselinea

From: The effectiveness of a Housing First adaptation for ethnic minority groups: findings of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Adapted Housing First (n = 135) Usual care (n = 102)
Age, n (%)
 < 30 40 (29.6) 28 (27.5)
 30–39 33 (24.4) 21 (20.6)
 40–49 38 (28.1) 35 (34.3)
 ≥ 50 24 (17.8) 18 (17.6)
Male, n (%)b 91 (67.9) 65 (66.3)
Country of birth, n (%)
 Canada 37 (27.4) 29 (28.4)
 Other 98 (72.6) 73 (71.6)
Native language, n (%)
 English 65 (48.1) 48 (47.1)
 Other 70 (51.9) 54 (52.9)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Black - Caribbean Region 32 (23.7) 21 (20.6)
 Black - Africa 25 (18.5) 17 (16.7)
 Black - Canada 21 (15.6) 13 (12.7)
 Mixed backgroundc 9 (6.7) 17 (16.7)
 South Asian 13 (9.6) 10 (9.8)
 Otherd 35 (25.9) 24 (23.5)
Marital status n (%)
 Single, never married 89 (66.4) 73 (71.6)
 Othere 45 (33.6) 29 (28.4)
Number of children, n (%)
 0 95 (70.4) 74 (72.5)
 1 24 (17.8) 13 (12.7)
 ≥ 2 16 (11.8) 15 (14.7)
Current housing status, n (%)   
 Absolutely homeless 121 (89.6) 93 (91.2)
 Precariously housed 14 (10.4) 9 (8.8)
Total length of homelessness, years, mean ± sdf 3.5 ± 4.4 4.4 ± 5.7
Longest period of homelessness, years, mean ± sdg 1.9 ± 3.0 2.2 ± 2.8
Education history, n (%)
 < High school 61 (45.2) 45 (44.1)
 Completed high school 22 (16.3) 23 (22.5)
 Some post-secondary school 52 (38.5) 34 (33.3)
MCAS total score, mean ± sd 65.5 ± 3.12 65.4 ± 3.25
MINI results, n (%)h
 Depressive episode 57 (42.2) 39 (38.2)
 Manic or hypomanic episode 12 (8.9) 7 (6.9)
 Post-traumatic stress disorder 34 (25.2) 23 (22.5)
 Panic disorder 21 (15.6) 18 (17.6)
 Mood disorder with psychotic features 30 (22.2) 24 (23.5)
 Psychotic disorder 46 (34.1) 40 (39.2)
 Alcohol abuse or dependence 43 (31.9) 38 (37.3)
 Substance abuse or dependence 45 (33.3) 41 (40.2)
 Suicidalityi 36 (26.7) 32 (31.4)
  1. MCAS Multnomah Community Ability Scale, MINI Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview
  2. aThe following variables had missing values: marital status (n = 1); total length of homelessness (n = 5); longest period of homelessness (n = 1). Percentages were calculated out of the total available data
  3. bIndividuals who self-identified as female and other/transgendered/transsexual are not listed due to small cell size ≤ 5 for the latter category
  4. c“Mixed” ethnicity included individuals who had at least one parent from the following ethnicities: East Asian, South East Asian, African Black, Canadian Black, Caribbean Black, Latin American, Indian-Caribbean and Middle Eastern
  5. dThe “Other” category comprised of individuals who self-identified to one of the following groups but were suppressed due to small cell size: East Asian, Indian-Caribbean, Latin American, Middle Eastern and South East Asian
  6. e“Other” marital status categories include the following options: married, cohabitating with partner, divorced, separated, widowed
  7. fMedian values in years for total length of homelessness were as follows: 2.0 for the adapted HF group and 2.5 for the usual care group
  8. gMedian values in years for longest period of homelessness were as follows: 1.0 for the adapted HF group and 1.0 for the usual care group
  9. hMINI Diagnoses all represent current diagnoses established at baseline
  10. iSuicidality was assessed as low, medium, or high; results here are shown for the collapsed moderate and high categories