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Table 1 Risk factors at baseline and death from coronary heart disease during the 11-year follow-up in men and women

From: Pessimism and risk of death from coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older Finns: an eleven-year follow-up study

  Men Women
Death from coronary heart disease Mann–Whitney Death from coronary heart disease Mann–Whitney
Yes No U test Yes No U test
N = 87 N = 960 N = 34 N = 1186
Mean SD Mean SD p-value Mean SD Mean SD p-value
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.26 1.08 5.67 1.09 0.01 5.52 1.44 5.90 1.03 0.03
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.21 0.30 1.37 0.36 <0.001 1.47 0.41 1.65 0.45 0.04
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 148 23 146 18 0.39 152 25 145 20 0.09
Blood glucose (mmol/L) 6.48 1.86 5.86 1.27 0.001 5.91 1.00 5.51 1.16 0.001
CVD risk score 18.2 3.5 15.9 3.7 <0.001 18.0 3.5 14.1 4.2 <0.001
LOT-R optimism score 8.37 2.15 8.34 2.11 0.97 8.45 2.31 8.40 2.07 0.87
LOT-R pessimism score 4.56 2.51 3.78 2.68 0.008 5.34 2.03 3.75 2.61 <0.001
  %   %   Chi-squared test p-value %   %   Chi-squared test p-value
CHD at baseline 42.5   9.4   <0.001 51.4   5.7   <0.001
Use of drugs for hypertension 42.5   27.0   0.002 28.6   60.0   <0.001
Use of drugs for diabetes 19.5   5.2   <0.001 14.3   3.4   0.001
Regular smoker 20.7   15.9   0.25 2.9   9.5   0.18
  1. HDL high-density lipoprotein, CVD cardiovascular disease, LOT-R Life Orientation Test – Revised, CHD coronary heart disease