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Table 2 Risk perception, outness, sexual identity, intention to get tested, reasons to decline a test voucher, arguments in favour of home/home collection testing, and risk management beyond condom use in two MSM subgroups from Germany, 2013

From: HIV risk perception and testing behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM) reporting potential transmission risks in the previous 12 months from a large online sample of MSM living in Germany

  HIV test in the last 12 months (n = 775) n (%) Never tested for HIV (n = 396) n (%) OR 95 % CI aORa 95 % CI
Perceived risk at last AI No/very low risk (0–1) 297 (40.97) 161 (43.40) Ref.   Ref.  
Low risk (2–4) 146 (20.14) 67 (18.06) 0.85 0.60–1.20 0.92 0.64–1.33
Medium risk (5) 148 (20.41) 86 (23.18) 1.07 0.77–1.49 1.18 0.83–1.67
High risk (6–8) 79 (10.90) 26 (7.01) 0.61 0.37–0.98 0.67 0.40–1.11
Very high risk (9–10) 55 (7.59) 31 (8.36) 1.04 0.64–1.68 1.06 0.63–1.76
Perceived risk in the last 12 months No/very low risk (0–1) 172 (24.09) 122 (33.89) Ref.    
Low risk (2–4) 237 (33.19) 109 (30.28) 0.65 0.47–0.90 0.69 0.48–0.97
Medium risk (5) 183 (25.63) 79 (21.94) 0.61 0.43–0.86 0.59 0.40–0.85
High risk (6–8) 83 (11.62) 26 (7.22) 0.44 0.27–0.73 0.42 0.25–0.71
Very high risk (9–10) 39 (5.46) 24 (6.67) 0.87 0.50–1.52 0.80 0.44–1.44
Outness towards family doctor He/she knows 383 (49.68) 43 (11.00) Ref.   Ref.  
I don’t know or I think he/she knows 154 (19.97) 61 (15.60) 3.53 2.29–5.44 2.98 1.90–4.66
He/she does not know 174 (22.57) 243 (62.15) 12.44 8.59–18.02 10.07 6.86–14.78
I do not have a family doctor 60 (7.78) 44 (11.25) 6.53 3.96–10.78 6.69 3.96–11.29
Outness towards parents At least one parent knows 575 (84.43) 217 (66.77) Ref.   Ref.  
Parents do not know 106 (15.57) 108 (33.23) 2.70 1.98–3.68 2.63 1.88–3.67
Outness towards class mates/co-workers More than half know 428 (56.69) 128 (33.95) Ref.   Ref.  
Less than half know 327 (43.31) 249 (66.05) 2.55 1.97–3.29 2.43 1.84–3.20
Self-definition Homosexual/gay/queer 612 (79.27) 226 (57.22) Ref.   Ref.  
Bisexual 101 (13.08) 128 (32.41) 3.43 2.54–4.64 3.45 2.50–4.77
Heterosexual 2 (0.26) 1 (0.25) 1.35 0.12–15.00 -  
Other/none 57 (7.38) 40 (10.13) 1.90 1.23–2.93 1.64 1.03–2.61
Intention to get tested in the coming 12 months Yes 653 (84.48) 121 (30.63) Ref.   Ref.  
No 120 (15.52) 274 (69.37) 12.32 9.23—16.46 12.68 9.28–17.33
Reasons to decline a free test voucher Time/distance 93 (27.84) 61 (38.36) 1.61 1.08–2.40 1.23 0.79–1.90
Recent test 160 (47.90) 2 (1.26) 0.01 0.00–0.06 0.02 0.00–0.06
Don’t perceive to be at risk 46 (13.77) 35 (22.01) 1.77 1.09–2.88 1.53 0.91–2.58
No symptoms 37 (11.08) 62 (38.99) 5.13 3.21–8.19 4.59 3.21–8.19
Currently don’t want to know 12 (3.59) 38 (23.90) 8.43 4.26–16.66 7.75 3.81–15.78
Test not in a study context 86 (25.75) 52 (32.70) 1.40 0.93–2.12 1.67 1.08–2.61
Arguments in favour of home/home collection testing More convenient and less time consuming 516 (88.81) 215 (66.36) 0.25 0.18–0.35 0.24 0.17–0.35
Don’t want others to know that I’m testing for HIV 133 (22.89) 169 (52.16) 3.67 2.74–4.92 3.21 2.35–4.38
Testing is embarrassing 72 (12.39) 101 (31.17) 3.20 2.28–4.50 2.82 1.94–4.08
I don’t want instructions about my sex life 134 (23.06) 104 (32.10) 1.58 1.17–2.13 1.56 1.12–2.16
I don’t need counselling 167 (28.74) 54 (16.67) 0.50 0.35–0.70 0.58 0.40–0.84
Risk management beyond condom use
Risk management beyond condom use
Partner well known 343 (45.61) 128 (34.04) 0.62 0.48–0.80 0.59 0.45–0.77
Undetectable viral load 97 (12.90) 16 (4.26) 0.30 0.17–0.52 0.46 0.26–0.81
Only insertive 316 (42.02) 94 (25.00) 0.46 0.35–0.61 0.54 0.40–0.72
Withdrawal before ejaculation 271 (36.04) 103 (27.39 0.67 0.51–0.88 0.71 0.53–0.95
Partner appears healthy 109 (14.49) 75 (19.95) 1.47 1.06–2.03 1.39 0.98–1.97
Partner tested HIV-negative 293 (38.96) 106 (28.19) 0.62 0.47–0.80 0.54 0.40–0.72
Penis cleaning 166 (22.07) 45 (11.97) 0.48 0.34–0.69 0.47 0.32–0.68
  1. aAdjusted for age and city size
  2. Analyzed sample consists of 1,171 participants with at least 2 cAI-partners in the last 12 months; 775 (66.18 %) were tested for HIV in the last 12 months, 396 (33.82 %) have never been tested for HIV. Outcome: HIV test: in the last 12 months (0); never (1)