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Table 3 Multiple linear regression between dietary intake components at 6 years, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and early feeding practices. Pelotas 2004 birth cohort study (N = 3,427)

From: Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

Variable Fruits and Vegetables p-value Snack and treats p-value Coffee and Bread p-value Milk p-value
β (CI 95 %)   β (CI 95 %)   β (CI 95 %)   β (CI 95 %)  
SEP quintilesa   0.083   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
 1st (lower) 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 2nd −0.07 (−0.17; 0.03)   −0.09 (−0.17; −0.01)   −0.17 (−0.27; −0.07)   0.22 (0.12; 0.32)  
 3rd −0.06 (−0.16; 0.04)   −0.14 (−0.21; −0.06)   −0.26 (−0.35; −0.17)   0.40 (0.30; 0.50)  
 4th −0.04 (−0.14; 0.07)   −0.13 (−0.22; −0.05)   −0.43 (−0.52; −0.33)   0.45 (0.35; 0.56)  
 5th (upper) −0.11 (−0.20; −0.01)   −0.26 (−0.33; −0.19)   −0.51 (−0.60; −0.42)   0.46 (0.36; 0.57)  
Maternal age at birthb   0.211   0.404   0.209   0.406
 18-35 years 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
  < 18 years −0.13 (−0.23; −0.02)   0.14 (0.04; 0.24)   −0.07 (−0.18; 0.04)   −0.03 (−0.14; 0.08)  
  > 35 years 0.12 (0.02; 0.21)   −0.01 (−0.10; 0.07)   −0.03 (−0.11; 0.05)   −0.03 (−0.13; 0.06)  
Sexb   0.037   0.383   0.113   <0.001
 Male 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 Female 0.07 (0.01; 0.13)   0.02 (−0.03; 0.07)   −0.05 (−0.11; 0.01)   −0.13 (−0.20; −0.07)  
Skin colorb   0.627   0.080   0.017   0.041
 White 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 Brown 0.00 (−0.09; 0.09)   0.06 (−0.01; 0.14)   0.08 (−0.01; 0.17)   0.06 (−0.15; 0.04)  
 Black 0.10 (−0.01; 0.20)   0.04 (−0.04; 0.12)   0.16 (0.07; 0.26)   −0.19 (−0.29; −0.09)  
Exclusive breastfeeding durationc 0.004   0.004   0.034   0.419
  ≤ 7 days 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 8 days - <1 month −0.04 (−0.14; 0.07)   −0.07 (−0.15; 0.01)   −0.01 (−0.10; 0.12)   0.05 (−0.07; 0.17)  
 1 month - <3 months 0.02 (−0.06; 0.10)   −0.04 (−0.11; 0.02)   0.01 (−0.07; 0.09)   −0.01 (−0.09; 0.09)  
  ≥ 3 months 0.13 (0.04; 0.21)   −0.11 (−0.18; −0.04)   −0.10 (−0.18; −0.02)   0.05 (−0.04; 0.14)  
Age of introduction of complementary foodsc 0.001   0.031   0.022   0.372
  ≥ 4 months 0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  
 1–3.9 months −0.11 (−0.21; −0.02)   0.04 (−0.02; 0.11)   0.11 (0.03; 0.19)   −0.04 (−0.13; 0.05)  
  < 1 month −0.17 (−0.27; −0.07)   0.08 (0.01; 0.15)   0.12 (0.04; 0.21)   −0.05 (−0.15; 0.05)  
Variable Cheese and processed meats p-value Rice and beans p-value Carbohydrates p-value  
β (CI 95 %)   β (CI 95 %)   β (CI 95 %)   
SEP quintilesa   <0.001   <0.001   0.099  
 1st (lower) 0.00   0.00   0.00   
 2nd 0.17 (0.08; 0.26)   −0.19 (−0.29; −0.10)   −0.04 (−0.15; 0.07)   
 3rd 0.22 (0.13; 0.32)   −0.26 (−0.36; −0.16)   0.01 (−0.10; 0.12)   
 4th 0.34 (0.23; 0.45)   −0.40 (−0.51; −0.30)   −0.01 (−0.10; 0.10)   
 5th (upper) 0.45 (0.36; 0.54)   −0.63 (−0.73; −0.54)   0.08 (−0.02; 0.18)   
Maternal age at birthb   0.031   0.020   0.331  
 18-35 years 0.00   0.00   0.00   
  < 18 years −0.02 (−0.13; 0.10)   −0.01 (−0.12; 0.09)   −0.03 (−0.13; 0.07)   
  > 35 years −0.10 (−0.19; −0.02)   −0.13 (−0.23; −0.03)   −0.05 (−0.17; 0.07)   
Sexb   0.942   0.001   0.058  
 Male 0.00   0.00   0.00   
 Female 0.00 (−0.07; 0.06)   −0.10 (−0.16; −0.04)   −0.06 (−0.13; 0.00)   
Skin colorb   0.396   0.002   0.689  
 White 0.00   0.00   0.00   
 Brown −0.03 (−0.12; 0.05)   0.14 (0.04; 0.24)   0.04 (−0.07; 0.15)   
 Black −0.03 (−0.12; 0.07)   0.12 (0.02; 0.22)   −0.06 (−0.17; 0.04)   
Exclusive breastfeeding durationc   0.061   0.548   0.851  
  ≤ 7 days 0.00   0.00   0.00   
 8 days - <1 month 0.09 (−0.02; 0.21)   0.00 (−0.11; 0.11)   −0.09 (−0.19; 0.01)   
 1 month - <3 months 0.03 (−0.05; 0.11)   0.02 (−0.06; 0.11)   0.00 (−0.09; 0.09)   
  ≥ 3 months 0.10 (0.01; 0.18)   −0.04 (−0.12; 0.05)   −0.01 (−0.10; 0.08)   
Age of introduction of complementary foodsc 0.092   0.506   0.578  
  ≥ 4 months 0.00   0.00   0.00   
 1–4 months −0.02 (−0.11; 0.07)   0.07 (−0.01; 0.16)   0.01 (−0.08; 0.10)   
  < 1 month −0.07 (−0.16; 0.02)   0.05 (−0.04; 0.14)   −0.02 (−0.11; 0.07)   
  1. aStep 1: adjusted for sex and daily energy intake (kilocalories per day); bStep 2: adjusted for SEP, sex (except when sex was the independent variable) and daily energy intake (kilocalories per day); cStep 3: adjusted for SEP, mother’s age at birth, child’s sex and skin colour, and daily energy intake (kilocalories per day)
  2. P-values from trend tests are displayed
  3. SEP Socioeconomic position