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Table 4 Associations between depressive symptoms, defending behaviors, and bullying roles (N = 2,872)

From: Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

  Depressive symptoms score (Range: 1–3)
Bivariate analysis Multivariate regression I Multivariate regression II
Mean SD Test Beta STB SD p-value Beta STB SD p-value
Bullying experience:            
 Bullies (B) 1.80 0.03 F = 22.37 0.47 0.05 0.25 0.06 0.46 0.04 0.25 0.067
 Victims (V) 1.85 0.04 p < .0001 1.28 0.11 0.24 <.0001 1.22 0.11 0.24 <.0001
 Bully-victims (BV) 1.78 0.04 Post-hoc test 0.38 0.02 0.24 0.11 0.34 0.02 0.24 0.152
 Bystanders (BY) 1.61 0.01 B, V, BV > BY ref ref
Defending behavior score r = 0.047 P = 0.0115 - 0.27 0.07 0.10 0.008
  1. Note 1: Means were weighted by sampling probabilities
  2. Note 2: This model was adjusted for sex, grade, aggressive personality, communication skills, school attachment, parents’ marital status, parents’ education level, family activity level, family support level, family conflict level, and punishment level. Model I examined the relationship between bullying roles and depressive symptoms. Model II examined the relationship between bullying roles and depressive symptoms after adjusting for defending behaviors