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Table 2 Associations between defending behaviors and bullying roles (N = 2,872)

From: Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

  Defending behaviors score (Range: 1–5)
ANOVA Multivariate regression
Mean SD Beta STB SD p-value
Bullying role:
 Bullies (B) 1.82 0.06 −0.18 −0.06 0.07 0.011
 Bystanders (BY) 1.80 0.03 −0.21 −0.10 0.06 0.002
 Bully-victims (BV) 1.97 0.12 −0.07 −0.01 0.11 0.532
 Victims (V) 2.02 0.07 ref    
  F = 3.24  
(p =0.018)
Post-hoc test
V > B, BY
  1. Note 1: Means were weighted by sampling probabilities
  2. Note 2: This multivariate regression model was adjusted for sex, grade, aggressive personality, communication skills, school attachment, parents’ marital status, parents’ education level, family activity level, family support level, family conflict level, and punishment level