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Table 3 Multivariable GEE logistic regression model of characteristics associated with experiencing homelessness during a 3-year follow-up period among vulnerably housed participants in 3 Canadian cities

From: Predictors of homelessness among vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Core Model Adjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI) Final Model Adjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI) P value
City    
 Ottawa 1.66 (1.16–2.37) 1.88 (1.31–2.70) <0.001
 Toronto 1.04 (0.71–1.54) 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 0.497
 Vancouver 1 1 --
For every year of age 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.126
Gender    
 Male 1.64 (1.19–2.28) 1.59 (1.14–2.21) 0.007
 Female 1 1 --
Highest level of education    
 Less than high school 0.65 (0.48–0.87) 0.68 (0.50–0.91) 0.009
 More than high school 1 1 --
Chronic conditions    
 1 0.66 (0.38–1.15) 0.63 (0.35–1.11) 0.110
 2 0.81 (0.47–1.41) 0.83 (0.47–1.45) 0.505
 ≥3 0.60 (0.36–1.01) 0.55 (0.33–0.94) 0.029
 None 1 1 --
Per 10 % of time spent homeless prior to baseline 1.07 (1.02–1.12) 1.06 (1.01–1.11) 0.018
Per interval year of follow-up 0.96 (0.85–1.08) 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 0.515
Per unit housing quality -- 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.048
DAST risk level    
 Low -- 1.29 (0.90–1.84) 0.164
 Moderate -- 1.40 (1.00–1.97) 0.049
 Substantial -- 1.71 (1.20–2.44) 0.006
 Severe -- 1.98 (1.22–3.20) 0.003
 No drug use -- 1 --