Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Baseline characteristics for 561 vulnerably housed participants across 3 Canadian cities who did and did not experience homelessness during the 3-year follow-up period

From: Predictors of homelessness among vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total (N = 561)a
n (%)
Ever homeless (N = 269)a
n (%)
Never homeless (N = 292)a
n (%)
P-valueb
Age Group     0.0226
  < 30 years 63 (11.2) 31 (11.5) 32 (11.0)  
 30–39 years 137 (24.4) 77 (28.6) 60 (20.6)  
 40–49 years 221 (39.4) 108 (40.2) 113 (38.7)  
 ≥50 years 140 (25) 53 (19.7) 87 (29.8)  
Mean age (SD) 42.6 (9.8) 41.3 (9.2) 43.8 (10.2) 0.0033
Gender     0.0527
 Male 391 (69.7) 65 (24.2) 97 (33.2)  
 Female 162 (28.9) 200 (74.4) 191 (65.4)  
 Transgendered 8 (1.4) 4 (1.5) 4 (1.4)  
Ethnicity     0.7361
 White 344 (63.4) 167 (64.5) 177 (62.3)  
 Black/African-Canadian 36 (6.6) 14 (5.4) 22 (7.8)  
 First Nations/Aboriginal 122 (22.5) 59 (22.8) 63 (22.2)  
 Mixed/other 41 (7.6) 19 (7.3) 22 (7.8)  
Born in Canada 496 (89.4) 246 (92.5) 250 (86.5) 0.0225
Highest level of education     0.0009
 Some high school 279 (50.4) 119 (44.7) 160 (55.6)  
 Completed high school/equivalent 121 (21.8) 76 (28.6) 45 (15.6)  
 Some post-secondary or higher 154 (27.8) 71 (26.7) 83 (28.8)  
Partnered 134 (24.3) 64 (24.2) 70 (24.4) 0.9478
Employed in past 12 months 213 (38.0) 114 (42.4) 99 (34.0) 0.0418
Monthly income, median (IQR) 900 (600–1320) 920.0 (630–1540) 889 (586–1200) 0.0906
Percent of income spent on rent, median (IQR) 41.4 (25.0–62.0) 41.0 (22.5–62.3) 41.7 (27.3–60.9) 0.4403
Chronic health conditions     0.0609
 0 55 (9.8) 32 (11.9) 23 (7.9)  
 1 106 (18.9) 52 (19.3) 54 (18.5)  
 2 97 (17.3) 54 (20.1) 43 (14.7)  
 ≥3 303 (54) 131 (48.7) 172 (58.9)  
History of a mental health diagnosis 303 (54.9) 153 (57.3) 150 (52.6) 0.2703
History of traumatic brain injury 358 (64) 169 (62.8) 189 (65.2) 0.5634
SF-12 PCS, mean (SD) 43.6 (10.8) 44.3 (11.2) 43.0 (10.4) 0.1507
SF-12 MCS, mean (SD) 39.9 (13.0) 40.3 (12.4) 39.6 (13.6) 0.5231
Pregnancy in past 12 months 12 (7.5) 6 (9.2) 6 (6.3) 0.4798
Currently smoking     0.0002
 Daily 451 (80.8) 231 (86.2) 220 (75.9)  
 Occasionally 46 (8.2) 23 (8.6) 23 (7.9)  
 Not at all 61 (10.9) 14 (5.2) 47 (16.2)  
Positive AUDIT screen 222 (39.7) 119 (44.2) 103 (35.5) 0.0353
AUDIT risk     0.1388
 Low 337 (60.3) 150 (55.8) 187 (64.5)  
 Hazardous 88 (15.7) 44 (16.4) 44 (15.2)  
 Harmful 31 (5.6) 16 (6.0) 15 (5.2)  
 High 103 (18.4) 59 (21.9) 44 (15.2)  
Positive DAST screen 322 (57.6) 169 (62.8) 153 (52.8) 0.0161
DAST risk     0.0994
 No drug use in past 12 months 136 (24.3) 57 (21.2) 79 (27.2)  
 Low 101 (18.1) 43 (16.0) 58 (20.0)  
 Moderate 141 (25.2) 68 (25.3) 73 (25.2)  
 Substantial 134 (24) 76 (28.3) 58 (20.0)  
 Severe 47 (8.4) 25 (9.3) 22 (7.6)  
Arrests and/or incarceration in past 12 months 190 (34) 108 (40.3) 82 (28.2) 0.0025
Physical assault victim in past 12 months 206 (37) 99 (37.1) 107 (36.9) 0.9645
Sexual assault victim in past 12 months 46 (8.3) 26 (9.7) 20 (6.9) 0.2335
Age at first homelessness, median (IQR) 24 (16–38) 22.0 (16–36) 25 (16–40) 0.1910
Lifetime years of homelessness, median (IQR) 3.2 (1.0–6.7) 3.0 (1.0–6.7) 3.3 (1.0–6.7) 0.6692
Own place 511 (95.7) 240 (94.5) 271 (96.8) 0.1915
Subsidized housing 213 (40.8) 91 (36.6) 122 (44.7) 0.0587
Residence Type     0.2207
 Own house, apartment 180 (32.1) 89 (33.1) 91 (31.2)  
 Stay with friends and/or relatives 13 (2.3) 8 (3.0) 5 (1.7)  
 Rooming house/SRO 357 (63.6) 164 (61.0) 193 (66.1)  
 Institution/Other 11 (2.0) 8 (3.0) 3 (1.0)  
Housing quality, mean (SD) 27.53 (8.2) 27.4 (8.2) 27.7 (8.2) 0.6849
Social support network size     0.3289
 0 95 (17.3) 45 (17.0) 50 (17.5)  
 1 61 (11.1) 23 (8.7) 38 (13.3)  
 2–3 104 (18.9) 50 (18.9) 54 (19.0)  
 ≥4 290 (52.7) 147 (55.5) 143 (50.2)  
  1. aPercentages based on complete data; percentages provided by column
  2. bP-value calculated from t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables, chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables