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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 561 vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities

From: Predictors of homelessness among vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total (N = 561)a
n (%)
Ottawa
(N = 190)a
n (%)
Toronto
(N = 186)a
n (%)
Vancouver (N = 185)a
n (%)
Age Group
  < 30 years 63 (11.2) 30 (15.8) 12 (6.5) 21 (11.4)
 30–39 years 137 (24.4) 50 (26.3) 40 (21.5) 47 (25.4)
 40–49 years 221 (39.4) 62 (32.6) 87 (46.8) 72 (38.9)
  ≥ 50 years 140 (25) 48 (25.3) 47 (25.3) 45 (24.3)
Mean age (SD) 42.6 (9.8) 41.5 (10.5) 43.8 (9.4) 42.5 (9.4)
Gender
 Male 391 (69.7) 149 (78.4) 125 (67.2) 117 (63.2)
 Female 162 (28.9) 41 (21.6) 57 (30.7) 64 (34.6)
 Transgendered 8 (1.4) 0 4 (2.2) 4 (2.2)
Ethnicity
 White 344 (63.4) 149 (79.3) 90 (51.1) 105 (58.7)
 Black/African-Canadian 36 (6.6) 3 (1.6) 27 (15.3) 6 (3.4)
 First Nations/Aboriginal 122 (22.5) 32 (17) 37 (21) 53 (29.6)
 Mixed/other 41 (7.6) 4 (2.1) 22 (12.5) 15 (8.4)
Born in Canada 496 (89.4) 183 (96.8) 147 (79) 166 (92.2)
Highest level of education
 Some high school 279 (50.4) 100 (53.2) 86 (46.7) 93 (51.1)
 Completed high school/equivalent 121 (21.8) 36 (19.2) 42 (22.8) 43 (23.6)
 Some post-secondary or higher 154 (27.8) 52 (27.7) 56 (30.4) 46 (25.3)
Partnered 134 (24.3) 48 (25.7) 37 (20.1) 49 (27.1)
Employed in past 12 months 213 (38) 84 (44.4) 61 (32.8) 68 (36.8)
Monthly income, median (IQR) 900 (600–1320) 912.33 (591–1340) 750 (550–1200) 966 (698–1480)
Percent of income spent on rent, median (IQR) 41.4 (25.0–62.0) 43.0 (27.3–63.6) 38.9 (22.8–65.0) 41.1 (27.8–57.9)
Chronic health conditions
 0 55 (9.8) 10 (5.3) 36 (19.4) 9 (4.9)
 1 106 (18.9) 31 (16.3) 38 (20.4) 37 (20)
 2 97 (17.3) 32 (16.8) 36 (19.4) 29 (15.7)
  ≥ 3 303 (54) 117 (61.6) 76 (40.9) 110 (59.5)
History of a mental health diagnosis 303 (54.9) 120 (64.9) 78 (42.2) 105 (57.7)
History of traumatic brain injury 358 (64) 136 (72) 97 (52.4) 125 (67.6)
SF-12 PCS, mean (SD) 43.6 (10.8) 43.01 (11.3) 44.42 (10.26) 43.35 (10.8)
SF-12 MCS, mean (SD) 39.93 (13) 39.04 (13.5) 40.77 (12.79) 39.97 (12.76)
Pregnancy in past 12 months 12 (7.5) 4 (10) 3 (5.3) 5 (7.8)
Currently smoking
 Daily 451 (80.8) 161 (85.2) 138 (74.6) 152 (82.6)
 Occasionally 46 (8.2) 11 (5.8) 22 (11.9) 13 (7.1)
 Not at all 61 (10.9) 17 (9) 25 (13.5) 19 (10.3)
Positive AUDIT screen 222 (39.7) 82 (43.4) 76 (40.9) 64 (34.8)
AUDIT risk
 Low 337 (60.3) 107 (56.6) 110 (59.1) 120 (65.2)
 Hazardous 88 (15.7) 31 (16.4) 30 (16.1) 27 (14.7)
 Harmful 31 (5.6) 12 (6.4) 11 (5.9) 8 (4.4)
 High 103 (18.4) 39 (20.6) 35 (18.8) 29 (15.8)
Positive DAST screen 322 (57.6) 109 (57.7) 85 (45.7) 128 (69.6)
DAST risk
 No drug use in past 12 months 136 (24.3) 35 (18.5) 72 (38.7) 29 (15.8)
 Low 101 (18.1) 45 (23.8) 29 (15.6) 27 (14.7)
 Moderate 141 (25.2) 50 (26.5) 34 (18.3) 57 (31)
 Substantial 134 (24) 37 (19.6) 38 (20.4) 59 (32.1)
 Severe 47 (8.4) 22 (11.6) 13 (7) 12 (6.5)
Arrests and/or incarceration in past 12 months 190 (34) 68 (36.2) 61 (32.8) 61 (33)
Physical assault victim in past 12 months 206 (37) 74 (39.6) 63 (34.1) 69 (37.3)
Sexual assault victim in past 12 months 46 (8.3) 14 (7.5) 11 (5.9) 21 (11.5)
Age at first homelessness, median (IQR) 24 (16–38) 22 (16–38) 27 (16–39) 23 (15–38)
Lifetime years of homelessness, median (IQR) 3.15 (1–6.73) 2.38 (0.93–6) 3.5 (1–8.56) 3.56 (1.38–6.74)
Own place 511 (95.7) 182 (97.3) 155 (91.2) 174 (98.3)
Subsidized housing 213 (40.8) 42 (23.2) 97 (57.1) 74 (43.3)
Residence Type
 Own house, apartment 180 (32.1) 66 (34.7) 99 (53.2) 15 (8.1)
 Stay with friends and/or relatives 13 (2.3) 2 (1.1) 9 (4.8) 2 (1.1)
 Rooming house 197 (35.1) 118 (62.1) 75 (40.3) 4 (2.2)
 SRO 160 (28.5) 0 0 160 (86.5)
 Substance abuse treatment facility 4 (0.7) 0 0 4 (2.2)
 Halfway house 2 (0.4) 2 (1.1) 0 0
 Supportive housing 1 (0.2) 1 (0.5) 0 0
 Alternative housing 3 (0.5) 0 3 (1.6) 0
 Other 1 (0.2) 1 (0.5) 0 0
Housing quality, mean (SD) 27.53 (8.2) 27.44 (8.6) 28.48 (8.1) 26.67 (7.85)
Social support network size
 0 95 (17.3) 33 (17.8) 36 (19.4) 26 (14.5)
 1 61 (11.1) 21 (11.4) 16 (8.6) 24 (13.4)
 2–3 104 (18.9) 29 (15.7) 38 (20.4) 37 (20.7)
  ≥ 4 290 (52.7) 102 (55.1) 96 (51.6) 92 (51.4)
  1. aPercentages based on complete data; percentages provided by column