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Table 2 Results of PTSD prevalence rates in individual studies (total n = 30,458)

From: Extreme weather events in developing countries and related injuries and mental health disorders - a systematic review

Study (author/year) Country (HDIa) Event/year N Assessment tool Time point measured PTSD prevalence
Cross sectional studies
 Caldera et al. 2001 [26] Nicaragua (medium) Storm, Hurricane Mitch, 1998 496 Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) 6 months post 5.8 %
 Goenjian et al. 2001 [25] Nicaragua (medium) Storm, Hurricane Mitch, 1998 158 students Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) 6 months post 90 %, 55 %, 14 %b
 Huang et al. 2010 [27] China (medium) Flood, 1998 25,478 Questionnaire 24 months post 9.2 %
 Kar et al. 2004 [33] India (medium) Storm, super-cyclone, 1999 540 Post traumatic symptom scale (PSS) & Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) 5 months post 44.3 %
 Kar & Bastia 2006 [34] India (medium) Storm, super-cyclone, 1999 108 students Clinical examination & Mini international Neuropsychiatric Interview for children/adolescents (MINI-KID) 14 months post 26.9 %
 Kar et al. 2007 [30] India (medium) Storm, super-cyclone, 1999 447 students Clinical examination & ICD-10-symptom check-list & semi-structured questionnaire 12 months post 30.6 %
 Kohn et al. 2005 [44] Honduras (medium) Storm, Hurricane Mitch, 1998 800 Composite International Diagnostic Interview Schedule (CIDI); Impact of Event Scale (IES) 2 months post 8.9 %, 11.6 %, 13.6 %c
 Norris et al. 2006 [28] Mexico (high) Flood due to storm, 1999 666 Modified version of CIDI 6 months post 24 %
 Wu et al. 2011 [29] China (medium) Storm, snowstorm, 2008 968 students IES (revised version) 3 months post 14.5 %
Cohort study
 Amstadter et al. 2009 [24] Vietnam (medium) Storm, Typhoon Xangsan, 2006 797 Pre: SRQ; Post: National Women’s Study PTSD Module 3 months post 2.6 %
  1. Explanation: aHuman Development Index category; b3 differently affected cities; c3 age groups