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Table 3 Summary of consumption estimates and population-normalised loads measured in wastewater data for alcohol, tobacco and caffeine

From: Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

  Alcohol Tobacco Caffeine (Coffee)
Reported Wastewater Reported Wastewater Reported Wastewater
WHO EtS Euromonitor Int. HydCot + Cot Euromonitor Int. Caffeine Sum Metabolites
City/Country (L/year/person.) c(g/day/1000 inh) (cigarettes/person/day) (g/day/1000 inh.) (kg per capita in 2013.) g/day/1000 inh
Oslo/Norway 9.5 4.9 1.5 6.7 7.2 42.9 129.7
Castellon/Spain 13.2 1.7 4.8 5.2 3.0 9.9 74.2
Brussels/Belgium 13.3 5.6 4.0 5.3 4.9 25.8 116.6
Bristol/UK 14.1 4.2 2.1 3.4 1.7 22.1 112.8
Utrecht/Netherlands 11.9 2.8 2.2 2.1 6.7 13.4 57.3
Milan/Italy 7.8 1.7 4.0 2.6 3.4 10.8 49.9
Zurich/Switzerland 12.6 3.8 4.7 6.0 3.9 24.5 141.0
Copenhagen/Denmark 13.9 7.7 3.9 2.1 5.3 39.4 154.1