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Table 3 Multivariate multi-level models of infant mortality in the DRC, 1989–2010

From: The effect of war on infant mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  Bivariate models Multilevel model 1 Multilevel model 2 Multilevel model 3
Calendar year
 Pre-war, 1989–1995 1 1   
 War, 1996–2003 1.10* 1.10*   
 Post-war, 2004–2010 0.74*** 0.76***   
Number of conflict events
 No conflict events 1   1  
 Low 1.03   1.12(*)  
 Medium 1.15**   1.16***  
 High 1.35***   1.30***  
Number of deaths
 No deaths 1    1
 Low 1.09*    1.14**
 Medium 1.12**    1.16**
 High 1.36***    1.29***
Area of residence
 Urban 1 1 1 1
 Rural 1.43*** 1.14** 1.13** 1.13**
Province
 Kinshasa 1 1 1 1
 Bas-Congo 2.16*** 1.50*** 1.58*** 1.56***
 Bandundu 1.40** 1.1 1.13 1.12
 Equateur 1.77*** 1.19* 1.16 1.16(*)
 Orientale 1.72*** 1.20* 1.11 1.12
 Nord-Kivu 1.34** 0.92 0.85 0.85
 Maniema 1.87*** 1.29** 1.28* 1.28*
 Sud-Kivu 2.35*** 1.36** 1.29* 1.29*
 Katanga 1.90*** 1.30** 1.22* 1.23*
 Kasaï Oriental 1.35** 0.99 0.99 0.98
 Kasaï Occidental 1.94*** 1.33** 1.34** 1.32**
Mother’s education
 No education 1.73*** 1.37*** 1.38*** 1.38***
 Up to primary education 1.54*** 1.29*** 1.29*** 1.29***
 Post primary 1 1 1 1
Mother’s age at each birth
 10–21 1 1 1 1
 22–27 0.74*** 0.83*** 0.82*** 0.82***
 28–49 0.74*** 0.81*** 0.79*** 0.79***
Marital status
 Pre-union birth 1 1 1 1
 Birth within union 0.84*** 0.86** 0.85** 0.85**
Birth order and spacing
 First born, no spacing 1 1 1 1
 2nd born, <2 years 1.31*** 1.16* 1.16* 1.16**
 2nd born, > = 2 years 0.65*** 0.65*** 0.65*** 0.65***
 3rd - 4th born, < 2 years 1.15** 1.05 1.05 1.05
 3rd - 4th born, > = 2 years 0.61*** 0.60*** 0.60*** 0.60***
 5th- 16th born, <2 years 1.45*** 1.26** 1.24** 1.24**
 5th- 16th born, > = 2 years 0.63*** 0.58*** 0.56*** 0.57***
Previous sibling death during infancy
 No previous sibling death 1 1 1 1
 Previous sibling death 1.42*** 1.92*** 1.90*** 1.91***
Gender
 Boy 1 1 1 1
 Girl 0.86*** 0.87*** 0.87*** 0.87***
Age of infant
 Neonatal 1 1 1 1
 Post-neonatal 0.17*** 0.16*** 0.16*** 0.16***
 Constant   0.02*** 0.02*** 0.02***
 lnsig2u   −1.16 −1.13 −1.13
 Sigma_u   0.56 0.57 0.57
 Rho   0.09 0.09 0.09
 chi2   4092.41 4013.82 4014.22
  1. (*)p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001