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Table 3 Multivariable models of perceived encouragement and motivation for dog walking in 629 dog owners in RESIDE Study, Perth, Western Australia (Sep 2003-Mar 2005)

From: Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: cross-sectional findings from RESIDE

Model outcome   Encouragementa Motivationb
Variable   Adj OR 95 % CI P Adj OR 95 % CI P
Dog-related factors
 Dog size Small 1    1   
Medium/large 1.81 1.24–2.63 0.002 2.06 1.33–3.17 0.001
 Level of attachment to dog Medium/low 1    1   
High 1.70 0.99–2.92 0.05 2.12 1.21–3.74 0.01
 Spouse/partner main person in household who walks with dog Yes 1    1   
No 1.55 0.91–2.64 0.11 2.44 1.35–4.42 0.003
 Child main person in household who walks with dog Yes 1    1   
No 2.46 1.13–5.33 0.02 5.34 2.40–11.85 <0.001
 Owns an overweight dog Yes     1   
No - - - 1.76 1.01–3.07 0.05
 Affected by poor health or age of dog Yes     1   
No - - - 1.58 1.00–2.49 0.05
 Perceived access to POS with dog-supportive features Poor     1   
Good/Average - - - 0.57 0.36–0.91 0.02
Cognitive factors
 Subjective norm of family, other owners and veterinarian to walking with dog daily Neutral/Negative 1    1   
Positive 1.12 0.72–1.73 0.62 1.68 0.94–2.99 0.08
 Perceived dog-specific barriers to walking with dog daily Ambivalent-Likely to discourage 1    1   
Unlikely to discourage 1.65 1.15–2.38 0.01 1.60 1.02–2.52 0.04
 Knowing dog enjoys going for a walk Ambivalent-Unlikely motivation to walk with dog daily 1    1   
Likely motivation to walk with dog daily 1.87 1.21–2.90 0.01 2.84 1.73–4.67 <0.001
 I feel safe when walking with my dogs Ambivalent-Unlikely motivation to walk with dog daily 1    1   
Likely motivation to walk with dog daily 0.77 0.50–1.18 0.23 1.12 0.67–1.90 0.65
 Keep dog healthy Ambivalent-Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 1    1   
Likely outcomes of walking with dog daily 2.07 1.17–3.68 0.01 1.96 1.10–3.46 0.02
 Reduce the risk of dog barking Ambivalent-Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily     1   
Likely outcomes of walking with dog daily 1.31 0.81–2.14 0.27 1.83 1.14–2.93 0.01
Demographic factors
 Gender Male 1      
Female 1.39 0.94–2.05 0.10 - - -
 Children at home <18 years Yes 1    1   
No 1.68 1.16–2.45 0.01 2.12 1.35–3.28 0.001
 Education Secondary or less     1   0.18
Trade/apprentice/certificate - - - 1.50 0.94–2.41 0.09
Bachelor or higher - - - 1.53 0.85–2.75 0.16
Other social support for walking
 Social support from family to go walking in past month Poor 1    1   
Average/Good 1.76 1.19–2.58 0.004 2.58 1.66–4.01 <0.001
  1. aN = 573, Hosmer-Lemeshow 0.82, Classification table percentage correct = 66.1
  2. bN = 559, Hosmer-Lemeshow 0.33, Classification table percentage correct = 76.7
  3. values in bold if 0.05 or less